Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder

A case-control study

Paolo Cassano, Eric Bui, Andrew H. Rogers, Zandra E. Walton, Rachel Ross, Mary Zeng, Mireya Nadal-Vicens, David Mischoulon, Amanda W. Baker, Aparna Keshaviah, John Worthington, Elizabeth A. Hoge, Jonathan E. Alpert, Maurizio Fava, Kwok K. Wong, Naomi M. Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: There is mixed evidence in the literature on the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Contradictory findings are attributed to lack of rigorous characterization of study subjects, to the presence of concomitant medical illnesses, to the small sample sizes, and to the limited number of cytokines tested. Methods: Subjects aged 18-70 years, diagnosed with major depressive disorder and presenting with chronic course of illness, as well as matched controls (n = 236), were evaluated by trained raters and provided blood for cytokine measurements. Cytokine levels in EDTA plasma were measured with the MILLIPLEX Multi-Analyte Profiling Human Cytokine/Chemokine Assay employing Luminex technology. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and healthy volunteers, before (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p40), IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, Eotaxin, interferon-γ, monotype chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor). Results: There were no significant differences in cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and controls, both prior to and after correction for multiple analyses (significance set at p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our well-characterized examination of cytokine plasma levels did not support the association of major depressive disorder with systemic inflammation. The heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, as well as a potential sampling bias selecting for non-inflammatory depression, might have determined our findings discordant with the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Volume51
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Case-Control Studies
Cytokines
Interleukin-12
Nonparametric Statistics
Interleukin-1
Chemokine CXCL10
Inflammation
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
Interleukin-15
Interleukin-7
Interleukin-13
Selection Bias
Interleukin-3
Chemotactic Factors
Interleukin-5
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Interleukin-8
Chemokines
Edetic Acid

Keywords

  • cytokines
  • inflammation
  • interleukin-1β
  • interleukin-6
  • Major depressive disorder
  • tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Cassano, P., Bui, E., Rogers, A. H., Walton, Z. E., Ross, R., Zeng, M., ... Simon, N. M. (2017). Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder: A case-control study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(1), 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867416652736

Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder : A case-control study. / Cassano, Paolo; Bui, Eric; Rogers, Andrew H.; Walton, Zandra E.; Ross, Rachel; Zeng, Mary; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya; Mischoulon, David; Baker, Amanda W.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Worthington, John; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Fava, Maurizio; Wong, Kwok K.; Simon, Naomi M.

In: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 23-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cassano, P, Bui, E, Rogers, AH, Walton, ZE, Ross, R, Zeng, M, Nadal-Vicens, M, Mischoulon, D, Baker, AW, Keshaviah, A, Worthington, J, Hoge, EA, Alpert, JE, Fava, M, Wong, KK & Simon, NM 2017, 'Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder: A case-control study', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867416652736
Cassano, Paolo ; Bui, Eric ; Rogers, Andrew H. ; Walton, Zandra E. ; Ross, Rachel ; Zeng, Mary ; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya ; Mischoulon, David ; Baker, Amanda W. ; Keshaviah, Aparna ; Worthington, John ; Hoge, Elizabeth A. ; Alpert, Jonathan E. ; Fava, Maurizio ; Wong, Kwok K. ; Simon, Naomi M. / Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder : A case-control study. In: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2017 ; Vol. 51, No. 1. pp. 23-31.
@article{c34968e4e38a497ea2d6318e4b7caa4b,
title = "Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder: A case-control study",
abstract = "Introduction: There is mixed evidence in the literature on the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Contradictory findings are attributed to lack of rigorous characterization of study subjects, to the presence of concomitant medical illnesses, to the small sample sizes, and to the limited number of cytokines tested. Methods: Subjects aged 18-70 years, diagnosed with major depressive disorder and presenting with chronic course of illness, as well as matched controls (n = 236), were evaluated by trained raters and provided blood for cytokine measurements. Cytokine levels in EDTA plasma were measured with the MILLIPLEX Multi-Analyte Profiling Human Cytokine/Chemokine Assay employing Luminex technology. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and healthy volunteers, before (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p40), IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, Eotaxin, interferon-γ, monotype chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor). Results: There were no significant differences in cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and controls, both prior to and after correction for multiple analyses (significance set at p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our well-characterized examination of cytokine plasma levels did not support the association of major depressive disorder with systemic inflammation. The heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, as well as a potential sampling bias selecting for non-inflammatory depression, might have determined our findings discordant with the literature.",
keywords = "cytokines, inflammation, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, Major depressive disorder, tumor necrosis factor-α",
author = "Paolo Cassano and Eric Bui and Rogers, {Andrew H.} and Walton, {Zandra E.} and Rachel Ross and Mary Zeng and Mireya Nadal-Vicens and David Mischoulon and Baker, {Amanda W.} and Aparna Keshaviah and John Worthington and Hoge, {Elizabeth A.} and Alpert, {Jonathan E.} and Maurizio Fava and Wong, {Kwok K.} and Simon, {Naomi M.}",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0004867416652736",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "51",
pages = "23--31",
journal = "Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry",
issn = "0004-8674",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inflammatory cytokines in major depressive disorder

T2 - A case-control study

AU - Cassano, Paolo

AU - Bui, Eric

AU - Rogers, Andrew H.

AU - Walton, Zandra E.

AU - Ross, Rachel

AU - Zeng, Mary

AU - Nadal-Vicens, Mireya

AU - Mischoulon, David

AU - Baker, Amanda W.

AU - Keshaviah, Aparna

AU - Worthington, John

AU - Hoge, Elizabeth A.

AU - Alpert, Jonathan E.

AU - Fava, Maurizio

AU - Wong, Kwok K.

AU - Simon, Naomi M.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Introduction: There is mixed evidence in the literature on the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Contradictory findings are attributed to lack of rigorous characterization of study subjects, to the presence of concomitant medical illnesses, to the small sample sizes, and to the limited number of cytokines tested. Methods: Subjects aged 18-70 years, diagnosed with major depressive disorder and presenting with chronic course of illness, as well as matched controls (n = 236), were evaluated by trained raters and provided blood for cytokine measurements. Cytokine levels in EDTA plasma were measured with the MILLIPLEX Multi-Analyte Profiling Human Cytokine/Chemokine Assay employing Luminex technology. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and healthy volunteers, before (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p40), IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, Eotaxin, interferon-γ, monotype chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor). Results: There were no significant differences in cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and controls, both prior to and after correction for multiple analyses (significance set at p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our well-characterized examination of cytokine plasma levels did not support the association of major depressive disorder with systemic inflammation. The heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, as well as a potential sampling bias selecting for non-inflammatory depression, might have determined our findings discordant with the literature.

AB - Introduction: There is mixed evidence in the literature on the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Contradictory findings are attributed to lack of rigorous characterization of study subjects, to the presence of concomitant medical illnesses, to the small sample sizes, and to the limited number of cytokines tested. Methods: Subjects aged 18-70 years, diagnosed with major depressive disorder and presenting with chronic course of illness, as well as matched controls (n = 236), were evaluated by trained raters and provided blood for cytokine measurements. Cytokine levels in EDTA plasma were measured with the MILLIPLEX Multi-Analyte Profiling Human Cytokine/Chemokine Assay employing Luminex technology. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and healthy volunteers, before (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p40), IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, Eotaxin, interferon-γ, monotype chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and vascular endothelial growth factor). Results: There were no significant differences in cytokine levels between major depressive disorder subjects and controls, both prior to and after correction for multiple analyses (significance set at p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Our well-characterized examination of cytokine plasma levels did not support the association of major depressive disorder with systemic inflammation. The heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, as well as a potential sampling bias selecting for non-inflammatory depression, might have determined our findings discordant with the literature.

KW - cytokines

KW - inflammation

KW - interleukin-1β

KW - interleukin-6

KW - Major depressive disorder

KW - tumor necrosis factor-α

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85008659747&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85008659747&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0004867416652736

DO - 10.1177/0004867416652736

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 23

EP - 31

JO - Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

JF - Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

SN - 0004-8674

IS - 1

ER -