Impact of Race on Clinical Outcomes after Implantation with a Fully Magnetically Levitated Left Ventricular Assist Device: An Analysis from the MOMENTUM 3 Trial

Farooq H. Sheikh, Ashwin K. Ravichandran, Daniel J. Goldstein, Richa Agarwal, John Ransom, Aditya Bansal, Gene Kim, Joseph C. Cleveland, Nir Uriel, Brett C. Sheridan, Don Chomsky, Snehal R. Patel, Nick Dirckx, Abi Franke, Mandeep R. Mehra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Heart failure disproportionately affects Black patients. Whether differences among race influence outcomes in advanced heart failure with use of a fully magnetically levitated continuous-flow left ventricular assist device remains uncertain. Methods: We included 515 IDE (Investigational Device Exemption) clinical trial patients and 500 Continued Access Protocol patients implanted with the HeartMate 3 left ventricular assist device in the MOMENTUM 3 study (Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3). Outcomes were compared between Black and White left ventricular assist device recipients for the primary end point of survival free of disabling stroke or reoperation to replace or remove a malfunctioning device at 2 years, overall survival, adverse events, 6-minute walk distance, and quality of life scores. Results: Of 1015 HeartMate 3 patients, 675 were self-identified as White and 285 as Black individuals. The Black patient cohort was younger, more obese and with a history of hypertension, and more nonischemic cause of heart failure, relative to the White patient group. Black and White patients did not experience a difference in the primary end point (81.1% versus 77.9%; hazard ratio, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.76-1.54], P=0.6568). Black patients were at higher risk of adverse events (calculated as events per 100 patient-years), including bleeding (75.4 versus 63.5; P<0.0001), stroke (9.5 versus 7.2; P=0.0183), and hypertension (10.1 versus 3.2; P<0.0001). The 6-minute walk distance was not different at baseline and 6 months between the groups, however, the absolute change from baseline was greater for White patients (median: +183.0 [interquartile range, 42.0-335.3] versus +163.8 [interquartile range, 42.3-315.0] meters, P=0.01). The absolute quality of life measurement (EuroQoL group, 5-dimension, 5-level instrument visual analog scale) at baseline and 6 months was better in the Black patient group, but relative improvement from baseline to 6 months was greater in White patients (median: +20.0 [interquartile range, 5.0-40.0] versus +25.0 [interquartile range, 10.0-45.0]; P=0.0298). Conclusions: Although the survival free of disabling stroke or reoperation to replace/remove a malfunctioning device at 2 years with the HM 3 left ventricular assist device did not differ by race, Black HeartMate 3 patients experienced a higher morbidity burden and smaller gains in functional capacity and quality of life when compared with White patients. These findings require efforts designed to better understand and overcome these gaps through systematic identification and tackling of putative factors. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT02224755 and NCT02892955.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E008360
JournalCirculation: Heart Failure
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

Keywords

  • heart failure
  • quality of life
  • race factors
  • thoracic surgery
  • treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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