Image-guided surgery has recently been described in the literature as a useflil technology for improved functional endoscopic sinus surgery localization. Image-guided surgery yields accurate knowledge of the surgical field boundaries, allowing safer and more thorough sinus surgery. We have previously reviewed our initial experience with The InstaTrak System. This article presents a multicenter clinical study (n=55) that assesses the system's capability for localizing structures in critical surgical sites. The purpose of this paper is to present quantitative data on accuracy and performance. We describe several new advances including an automated registration technique that eliminates the redundant computed tomography scan, compensation for head movement, and the ability to use interchangeabic instruments.
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