Over the past decade, hypothalamic microinflammation has been studied and appreciated as a core mechanism involved in the advancement of metabolic syndrome and aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that atypical microinflammatory insults disturb hypothalamic regulation resulting in metabolic imbalance and aging progression, establishing a common causality for these two pathophysiologic statuses. Studies have causally linked these changes to activation of key proinflammatory pathways, especially NF-κB signaling within the hypothalamus, which leads to hypothalamic neuronal dysregulation, astrogliosis, microgliosis, and loss of adult hypothalamic neural stem/progenitor cells. While hypothalamic microinflammation is a complex, multifaceted process, initial work has been done to reveal how it contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and aging, and studies inhibiting hypothalamic microinflammation through targeting proinflammatory signaling pathways have shown to be beneficial against these disorders and diseases. In this chapter, we provide a broad overview on hypothalamic microinflammation, focusing on its features, inducers, and shared pathogenic roles in metabolic syndrome and aging.