Human mass balance study of TAS-102 using 14C analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry

James J. Lee, Jabed Seraj, Kenichiro Yoshida, Hirokazu Mizuguchi, Sandra Strychor, Jillian Fiejdasz, Tyeler Faulkner, Robert A. Parise, Patrick Fawcett, Laura Pollice, Scott Mason, Jeremy Hague, Marie Croft, James Nugteren, Charles Tedder, Weijing Sun, Edward Chu, Jan Hendrik Beumer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background: TAS-102 is an oral fluoropyrimidine prodrug composed of trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) in a 1:0.5 ratio. FTD is a thymidine analog, and it is degraded by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to the inactive trifluoromethyluracil (FTY) metabolite. TPI inhibits degradation of FTD by TP, increasing systemic exposure to FTD. Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors (6 M/2 F; median age 58 years; PS 0-1) were enrolled on this study. Patients in group A (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 200 nCi [14C]-FTD, while patients in group B (N = 4) received 60 mg TAS-102 with 1000 nCi [14C]-TPI orally. Plasma, blood, urine, feces, and expired air (group A only) were collected up to 168 h and were analyzed for 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry and analytes by LC-MS/MS. Results: FTD: 59.8 % of the 14C dose was recovered: 54.8 % in urine mostly as FTY and FTD glucuronide isomers. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 52.7 % FTD and 33.2 % FTY. TPI: 76.8 % of the 14C dose was recovered: 27.0 % in urine mostly as TPI and 49.7 % in feces. The extractable radioactivity in the pooled plasma consisted of 53.1 % TPI and 30.9 % 6-HMU, the major metabolite of TPI. Conclusion: Absorbed 14C-FTD was metabolized and mostly excreted in urine. The majority of 14C-TPI was recovered in feces, and the majority of absorbed TPI was excreted in urine. The current data with the ongoing hepatic and renal dysfunction studies will provide an enhanced understanding of the TAS-102 elimination profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)515-526
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Excretion
  • Mass balance
  • Metabolism
  • Radiolabel
  • Trifluorothymidine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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