Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with an increased risk of systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Systemic lymphoma usually involves extranodal sites (80%-90%) and is usually of intermediate-grade (diffuse large-cell or immunoblastic( or high-grade (diffuse small noncleaved) histology. Approximately one third to one half of patients are cured with the cytotoxic treatment regimens that are used in immunocompetent patients with lymphoma. Careful attention must be paid to appropriate treatment of HIV infection and to primary and secondary infection prophylaxis. Colony-stimulating factors are commonly used in conjunction with cytotoxic therapy because of the high risk of febrile neutropenia. Patients with HIV-associated Hodgkin's disease also frequently have extranodal involvement and mixed cellularity histology, features associated with an adverse prognosis in immunocompetent patients. Treatment regimens used to treat Hodgkin's disease in immunocompetent patients have been used with some success, although the prognosis is not favorable in HIV-infected patients with PCNSL is generally poor because such patients typically present with advanced immunodeficiency (CD4 <50/microL), and the lymphoma often relapses after transient initial response to whole brain irradiation. There are anecdotal reports of responses to therapy directed against Epstein-Barr virus (ie, high-dose zidovudine, gancyclovir, and interleukin-2).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O|
|Publication status||Published - May 2003|
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