HIV viral suppression among pregnant and breastfeeding women in routine care in the Kinshasa province: a baseline evaluation of participants in CQI-PMTCT study

for the CQI-PMTCT study team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Published data on viral suppression among pregnant and breastfeeding women in routine care settings are scarce. Here, we report provincial estimates of undetectable and suppressed viral load among pregnant or breastfeeding women in HIV care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and associated risk factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a baseline assessment for the CQI-PMTCT study: an ongoing cluster randomized trial to evaluate the effect of continuous quality interventions (CQI) on long-term ART outcomes among pregnant and breastfeeding women (NCT03048669). From November 2016 to June 2018, in each of the 35 Kinshasa provincial health zones (HZ), study teams visited the three busiest maternal and child health clinics, enrolled all HIV-positive pregnant or breastfeeding women (≤1 year post-delivery) receiving ART, and performed viral load testing. Log binomial models with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the HZ level, were used to estimate prevalence ratios comparing participants with undetected (<40 copies/mL) or suppressed (<1000 copies/mL) viral load across levels of individual and site characteristics. Results: Of the 1752 eligible women, 1623 had viral load results available, including 38% who had been on ART for <6 months and 74% were on tenofovir-lamivudine-efavirenz. Viral load was undetectable in 53% of women and suppressed in 62%. Among women who were on ART for ≥12 months, only 60% and 67% respectively, had undetectable or suppressed viral load. Viral load was undetectable in 53%, 48% and 58% of women testing during pregnancy, at delivery, and in postpartum respectively. In multivariable log binomial models, duration of ART >12 months, older age, being married, disclosure of HIV status, receiving care in an urban health zone or one supported by PEPFAR were all positively associated with viral suppression. Conclusions: The observed high level of detectable viral load suggests that high ART coverage alone without substantial efforts to improve the quality of care for pregnant and breastfeeding women, will not be enough to achieve the goal of virtual elimination of vertical HIV transmission in high-burden and limited resources settings like DRC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere25376
JournalJournal of the International AIDS Society
Volume22
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • HIV
  • option B+
  • pregnant women
  • quality of care
  • treat all
  • universal coverage
  • vertical transmission
  • viral load monitoring
  • viral suppression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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