Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive patients are at risk for the development of a variety of acute and chronic renal diseases. The most common cause of chronic renal failure in HIV-1-seropositive patients is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). HIVAN occurs almost exclusively in black patients and the majority of published cases are of patients who present with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This disease is currently the third leading cause of end-stage renal disease in blacks aged 20-64. Because HIV-1-seropositive patients may develop a wide variety of acute and chronic renal diseases, definitive diagnosis requires renal biopsy. Emerging data suggest a direct role of HIV-1 infection of kidney cells in the pathogenesis of HIVAN. There have been no well-controlled clinical trials in the treatment of HIVAN. The therapeutic agents with the most promise are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and antiretroviral medications. Long-term renal prognosis may be changing in the setting of improved aggressive antiretroviral therapy. Patient survival is determined primarily by the stage of HIV-1 infection. In this article, we present the case history of a patient who developed HIVAN. We then review the current literature concerning the epidemiology, differential diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of HIVAN.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases