Hepatitis C Resistance-Associated Substitutions among People Who Inject Drugs Treated with Direct-Acting Antiviral-Containing Regimens

Matthew J. Akiyama, Lindsey Riback, Jacqueline D. Reeves, Yolanda S. Lie, Linda Agyemang, Brianna L. Norton, Julia H. Arnsten, Alain H. Litwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can contribute to virologic failure and limit retreatment options. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at highest risk for transmission of resistant virus. We report on RASs at baseline and after virologic failure in DAA-naive and protease inhibitor-experienced PWID. Methods:We sequenced the NS3/4A, NS5A, and NS5B regions from 150 PWID with genotype 1 (GT1) viruses; 128 (85.3%) GT1a, 22 (14.7%) GT1b. Results:Among the 139 (92.7%) DAA-naive PWID, 85 of 139 (61.2%) had baseline RASs - 67 of 139 (48.2%) in NS3 (predominantly Q80K/L); 25 of 139 (18.0%) in NS5A; and 8 of 139 (5.8%) in NS5B. Of the 11 protease inhibitor-experienced participants, 9 had baseline NS3 RASs (V36L N=1, Q80K N=9) and 4 had baseline NS5A RASs (M28V N=2, H58P N=1, A92T N=1). Among the 11 participants who had posttreatment samples with detectable virus (7 treatment failures, 1 late relapse, 3 reinfections), 1 sofosbuvir/ledipasvir failure had a baseline H58P. Two sofosbuvir/ledipasvir-treated participants developed new NS5A mutations (Q30H, Y93H, L31M/V). Otherwise, no RASs were detected. Conclusions:Our results demonstrate RAS prevalence among DAA-naive PWID is comparable to that in the general population. Only 2 of 150 (1.3%) in our longitudinal cohort developed treatment-emergent RASs. Concern for transmission of resistant virus may therefore be minimal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofab474
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)
  • hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • people who inject drugs (PWID)
  • resistance-associated substitutions (RASs)
  • transmitted resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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