Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of prematurity in infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation. Survivors exhibit impaired growth of the cerebral cortex and neurodevelopmental sequeale, but the underlying mechanism(s) are obscure. Previously, we have shown that neocortical neurogenesis continues until at least 28 gestational weeks. This renders the prematurely born infants vulnerable to impaired neurogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that neurogenesis is impaired by IVH, and that signaling through GSK3β, a critical intracellular kinase regulated by Wnt and other pathways, mediates this effect. These hypotheses were tested observationally in autopsy specimens from premature infants, and experimentally in a premature rabbit IVH model. Significantly, in premature infants with IVH, the number of neurogenic cortical progenitor cells was reduced compared with infants without IVH, indicating acutely decreased neurogenesis. This finding was corroborated in the rabbit IVH model, which further demonstrated reduction of upper layer cortical neurons after longer survival. Both the acute reduction of neurogenic progenitors, and the subsequent decrease of upper layer neurons, were rescued by treatment with AR-A014418, a specific inhibitor of GSK3β. Together, these results indicate that IVH impairs late stages of cortical neurogenesis, and suggest that treatment with GSK3β inhibitors may enhance neurodevelopment in premature infants with IVH.
- intermediate progenitors
- intraventricular hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience