OBJECTIVE - Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) maintain a higher risk for recurrent GDM and overt diabetes. Overt diabetes is a risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but GDM alone, without subsequent development of overt diabetes, may also pose a risk for CKD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This cross-sectional analysis included Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) participants from 2000 to 2009. Patient characteristics and kidney function among three categories (GDM alone, overt diabetes, and no history of diabetes) were compared. The prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and CKD stages 1-2 and 3-5 was assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS - Of 37,716 KEEP female participants, 571 (1.5%) had GDM alone and 12,100 (32.1%) had overt diabetes. Women with GDM had a higher rate of microalbuminuria but not macroalbuminuria than their nondiabetic peers (10.0 vs. 7.7%) that was substantially lower than the 13.6% prevalence in diabetic women. In multivariate analysis, women with GDM alone, compared with nondiabetic women, demonstrated increased odds of CKD stages 1-2 (multivariate odds ratio 1.54 [95% CI 1.16 -2.05]) similar to the odds for women with overt diabetes (1.68 [1.55-1.82]). In stratified analyses, age, race, BMI, and hypertension modified the odds for CKD stages 1 -2 but not CKD stages 3-5 among women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS - Women with GDM alone have a higher prevalence of microalbuminuria than women without any history of diabetes, translating to higher rates of CKD stages 1-2. These results suggest that GDM, even in the absence of subsequent overt diabetes, may increase the risk for future cardiovascular and kidney disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing