Background Several studies have recently demonstrated the value of frailty assessment in a general heart failure (HF) population; however, it is unknown whether these findings are also applicable in advanced HF. We investigated the utility of frailty assessment and its prognostic value in elderly patients with advanced HF. Methods Forty consecutive elderly subjects aged ≥65 years, with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, New York Heart Association class III or IV, and a 6-minute walk test <300 m were enrolled from the HF clinic at Montefiore Medical Center between October 2012 and July 2013. Subjects were assessed for frailty with the Fried Frailty Index, consisting of 5 components: hand grip strength, 15-foot walk time, weight loss, physical activity, and exhaustion. All subjects were prospectively followed for death or hospitalization. Results At baseline, the mean age of the cohort was 74.9 ± 6.5 years, 58% female, left ventricular ejection fraction 25.6 ± 6.4%, 6-minute walk test 195.8 ± 74.3 m and length of follow-up 454 ± 186 days. Thirty-five percent were prefrail and 65% were frail. Frailty status was associated with the combined primary endpoint of mortality and all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–3.25, P = .013). On individual analysis, frailty was associated with all-cause hospitalizations (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.12–3.27, P = .017) and non-HF hospitalizations (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.14- 9.6, P = .028), but was not associated with HF hospitalizations alone (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.68–2.49, P = .380). Conclusions Frailty assessment in patients with advanced HF is feasible and provides prognostic value. These findings warrant validation in a larger cohort.
- advanced heart failure
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine