Recent studies have suggested that the "pressor effect" of acellular Hb is a consequence of perturbation of the macro-and microcirculatory system in multiple ways, and that PEGylation is an effective approach for controlling the same. In an attempt to confirm this concept, a new and simple thiolation mediated, maleimide chemistry-based conservative PEGylation protocol has been developed to conjugate multiple copies of PEG-chains to Hb. This approach combines the high reactivity of maleimides towards thiols with the propensity of iminothiolane to derivatize the ε-amino groups of proteins into reactive thiol groups, with conservation of their positive charge. One of the PEGylated products, namely (SP-PEGSK)6-HbA, that carries on an average six copies of PEG5000 chains per Hb, is non-hypertensive in hamster top load and in rat 50% exchange transfusion models. This hexa-PEGylated-Hb has (i) a hydrodynamic volume corresponding to that of an oligomerized Hb of 256 kDa, (ii) a molecular radius of ∼6.8 nm, (iii) high oxygen affinity, (iv) lowered Bohr effect, and (v) increased viscosity and colloidal osmotic pressure. These properties of (SP-PEGSK)6-HbA are consistent with the emerging new paradigms for the design of Hb based oxygen carriers and confirm the concept that the "pressor effect" of Hb is a multifactorial event. The thiolation mediated maleimide chemistry-based PEGylation protocol described here for the generation of (SP-PEGSK)6-Hb is simple, highly efficient, and is carried out under oxy conditions. The results demonstrate that a non-hypertensive PEG-Hb can be generated by conjugation of a lower number of PEG chains than previously reported.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology|
|State||Published - 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering