The avian leukosis virus (ALV) entry mechanism is controversial, with evidence for and against a low-pH requirement for viral fusion. To further address this question, we tested the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pseudotyped with the envelope protein of subgroup B ALV (ALV-B) in the presence of three different lysosomotropic agents. These lysosomotropic agents were able to block the entry of wild-type and pseudotyped ALV-B in two different cell lines, strongly suggesting that ALV-B requires a low-pH step for entry. ALV-B and pH-dependent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) entered cells with slower uptake kinetics than HIV-1, which is pH independent. These slow uptake rates support the theory that ALV-B utilizes endocytic pathways to enter cells. Using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy analysis, we visualized the colocalization of virus particles with the endosomal marker transferrin and demonstrated virus particles in clathrin-coated vesicles and endosome-like structures. Surprisingly, a low-pH treatment did not overcome the inhibition of ALV-B entry by lysosomotropic agents. This indicates that, in contrast to SFV, ALV-B is unable to fuse at the cellular surface, even at a low pH. Taken together, our findings suggest that endocytosis and a subsequent low-pH step are critical for successful ALV-B infection.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of virology|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science