Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing

Auditory Nerve

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Summary: The electrocochleogram and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) are electrophysiologic signals used to assess the auditory nerve. The electrocohleogram includes the cochlear microphonic, the cochlear summating potential, and the eighth nerve compound action potential. It is used predominantly for hearing assessment and for diagnosis of Ménière disease and auditory neuropathy. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials are used for hearing assessment, diagnosis of dysfunction within the cochlea, the auditory nerve, and the brainstem auditory pathways up to the level of the mesencephalon, and intraoperative monitoring of these structures. The earliest BAEP component, wave I, and the eighth nerve compound action potential reflect the same process - the initial depolarization in the distal auditory nerve. Brainstem auditory evoked potential wave II receives contributions from the region of the cochlear nucleus and from the second depolarization in the distal auditory nerve. Wave III and later components are entirely generated rostral to the auditory nerve. Interpretation of BAEP studies is based on waves I, III, and V; auditory nerve dysfunction is manifested as prolongation of the I-III interpeak interval or absence of waves III and V. Eighth nerve tumors can cause a variety of BAEP abnormalities depending on which structures they affect. Adverse intraoperative BAEP changes can have many etiologies, including direct mechanical or thermal injury of tissue, ischemia (including cochlear ischemia or infarction due to compromise of the internal auditory artery), eighth nerve stretch, systemic or localized hypothermia, and artifactual BAEP changes due to technical factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-38
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Clinical Neurophysiology
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cochlear Nerve
Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potentials
Cranial Nerves
Electrophysiology
Cochlea
Hearing
Action Potentials
Cochlear Microphonic Potentials
Ischemia
Intraoperative Monitoring
Auditory Pathways
Cochlear Nucleus
Trigeminal Nerve
Mesencephalon
Hypothermia
Infarction
Brain Stem
Arteries
Hot Temperature
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • Auditory nerve
  • Brainstem auditory evoked potentials
  • Cochlear nerve
  • Cranial nerve testing
  • Electrocochleography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing : Auditory Nerve. / Legatt, Alan D.

In: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 25-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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