Effects of smoking on the levels of antioxidant beta carotene, alpha tocopherol and retinol in human ovarian follicular fluid

Prabhudas R. Palan, Brian L. Cohen, David H. Barad, Seymour L. Romney

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12 Scopus citations


The concentrations of β-carotene, retinol and a-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma samples collected at the time of oocyte recovery from patients enrolled in our in vitro fertilization program. The mean β-carotene levels in follicular fluid [0.182 ± (SEM) 0.04 nmol/ml] and plasma (0.37 ± 0.34 mmol/ml) of smokers (n = 5) were significantly (p < 0.025 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower compared with the mean levels in follicular fluid (0.58 ± 0.10 nmol/ml) and plasma (1.11 ± 0.09 mmol/ml) in nonsmokers (n = 11). The follicular fluid and plasma retinol and α-tocopherol levels were comparable among the non- smokers and smokers. These findings direct attention to a possible role of the antioxidant β-carotene, per se, as a biological marker in ovarian oocyte follicular maturation and function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-46
Number of pages4
JournalGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1995



  • Antioxidants
  • Ovarian follicular fluid
  • Plasma
  • Retinol
  • Smoking
  • Superovulation
  • α-Tocopherol
  • β-Carotene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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