Effects of monovalent cations on Semliki Forest virus entry into BHK-21 cells

A. Helenius, Margaret Kielian, J. Wellsteed, I. Mellman, G. Rudnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Infection of mammalian cells with Semliki Forest virus requires the endocytosis of the virus, its delivery to prelysosomal endosomes, and fusion of the viral envelope with the endosome membrane. Previous studies have indicated that the low endosomal pH triggers a conformational change in the viral spike glycoproteins rendering them fusogenic. In this paper, we demonstrate an additional factor(s) which regulates virus fusion in endosomes. We found that Semliki Forest virus is unable to penetrate or infect baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells grown in medium containing reduced Na+ concentrations. Virus endocytosis and degradation are nearly normal, the virus is transported to endosomes where a characteristic low pH-induced loss of trypsin-sensitivity of the E1 spike glycoprotein occurs. Nevertheless, the viral envelope fails to fuse with the endosomal membrane and the viral RNA is not released into the cytosol. As judged by the uptake of the voltage-sensitive probe [3H]triphenylmethyl phosphonium we observed a close correlation between conditions which inhibit virus infection and which cause depolarization of the cells. We propose that in intact cells, the fusion of Semliki Forest virus with the endosome membrane depends not only on acidic endosomal pH, but also on the maintenance of the potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5691-5697
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume260
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1985
Externally publishedYes

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Semliki forest virus
Monovalent Cations
Virus Internalization
Endosomes
Viruses
Endocytosis
Membranes
Glycoproteins
Fusion reactions
Cell Fusion
Viral RNA
Virus Diseases
Cricetinae
Cytosol
Trypsin
Cells
Maintenance
Depolarization
Electric fuses
Kidney

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Helenius, A., Kielian, M., Wellsteed, J., Mellman, I., & Rudnick, G. (1985). Effects of monovalent cations on Semliki Forest virus entry into BHK-21 cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 260(9), 5691-5697.

Effects of monovalent cations on Semliki Forest virus entry into BHK-21 cells. / Helenius, A.; Kielian, Margaret; Wellsteed, J.; Mellman, I.; Rudnick, G.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 260, No. 9, 1985, p. 5691-5697.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Helenius, A, Kielian, M, Wellsteed, J, Mellman, I & Rudnick, G 1985, 'Effects of monovalent cations on Semliki Forest virus entry into BHK-21 cells', Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 260, no. 9, pp. 5691-5697.
Helenius, A. ; Kielian, Margaret ; Wellsteed, J. ; Mellman, I. ; Rudnick, G. / Effects of monovalent cations on Semliki Forest virus entry into BHK-21 cells. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1985 ; Vol. 260, No. 9. pp. 5691-5697.
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