The equilibrium binding and association kinetics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA Binding Protein (TBP) to the E4 and Major Late promoters of adenovirus (TATATATA and TATAAAAG, respectively), have been directly compared by quantitative DNase I titration and quench-flow 'footprinting'. The equilibrium binding of TBP to both promoters is described by the equilibrium TBP + DNA('TATA') mutually implies TBP-DNA('TATA'). The salt dependence of TBP binding to both promoters is identical within experimental error while the temperature dependence differs significantly. The observed rate of association follows simple second-order kinetics over the TBP concentration ranges investigated. The salt and temperature dependencies of the second- order association rate constants for TBP binding the two promoters reflect the dependencies determined by equilibrium binding. The TBP-E4 promoter interaction is entropically driven at low temperature and enthalpically driven at high temperature while the TBP-Major Late promoter reaction is entropically driven over virtually the entire temperature range investigated. These data suggest that the reaction mechanisms of TBP-promoter interactions are TATA sequence-specific and provide for differential regulation of promoters as a function of environmental variables.
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