Background: It is known that 15-30% overweight/obese adults do not suffer cardiometabolic consequences. There is limited literature examining factors that can be used to assess cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese children. If such factors can be identified, they would aid in differentiating those most in need for aggressive management. Methods: Baseline data from 7- to 12-year-old, overweight, and obese children enrolled in a weight management program at an urban hospital were analyzed. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) <2.6 was used to define insulin-sensitive and HOMA-IR ≥2.6 was used to defined insulin-resistant participants. Demographics, physical activity measures, and cardiometabolic risk factors were compared between the two phenotypes. Odds ratios (ORs) examining the association between intermediate endpoints (metabolic syndrome [MetS], nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD], systemic inflammation, and microalbuminuria) and the two metabolic phenotypes were evaluated. Results: Of the 362 overweight/obese participants, 157 (43.5%) were insulin sensitive and 204 (56.5%) were insulin resistant. Compared to the insulin-sensitive group, the insulin-resistant group was older (8.6±1.6 vs. 9.9±1.7; p<0.001) and had a higher BMI z-score (1.89±0.42 vs. 2.04±0.42; p=0.001). After multivariable adjustment, compared to the insulin-sensitive group, the insulin-resistant group had higher odds of having MetS (OR, 5.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72, 17.35; p=0.004) and NAFLD (OR, 8.66; 95% CI, 2.48, 30.31; p=0.001), but not systemic inflammation (OR, 1.06; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.03; p=0.86) or microalbuminuria (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.49, 6.04; p=0.403). Conclusions: Using a HOMA-IR value of ≥2.6, clinical providers can identify prepubertal and early pubertal children most at risk. Focusing limited resources on aggressive weight interventions may lead to improvement in cardiometabolic health.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics