Dietary differences in smokers and nonsmokers from two southeastern New England communities

Janice B. McPhillips, Charles B. Eaton, Kim M. Gans, Carol A. Derby, Thomas M. Lasater, Joyce L. McKenney, Richard A. Carleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective Previous studies based on 24-hour dietary recall data have shown that smokers tend to consume less healthful diets than nonsmokers. We tested this hypothesis using data from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a group of men and women. Design Characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers were compared using data collected from a cross-sectional household health survey. Subjects Adults aged 18 through 64 years from two communities in southeastern New England were randomly selected for the study and interviewed in their homes by trained personnel. The interview included questions on demographic and behavioral characteristics. Height, weight, blood pressure, and serum lipids were measured using standard protocols. The Willett FFQ was completed by 1,608 of 2,531 eligible respondents who made up our study sample. Statistical analyses performed Respondents were categorized as current cigarette smokers or nonsmokers. Demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and dietary characteristics were compared between smokers and nonsmokers by analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. Results Eligible respondents who did not complete the FFQ differed from respondents with respect to age, gender, smoking prevalence, and several other demographic characteristics. Smokers consumed more energy, fat, alcohol, and caffeine than nonsmokers. Smoking status was inversely associated with intake of vitamins A and C, dietary fiber, folate, and iron among women, whereas differences were smaller and not significant among men. Women who smoked consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables than nonsmokers, but this trend was not noted in men. The association between diet and smoking was only slightly diminished by multivariate adjustment for age, income, regular exercise, marital status, and working status but most clinically relevant associations remained. The interaction between gender and smoking was not statistically significant for most dietary variables. Conclusions These results suggest that health promotion messages targeted to smokers should include dietary instructions, especially for women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-292
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Dietetic Association
Volume94
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

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New England
smoking (food products)
New England region
food frequency questionnaires
Smoking
demographic statistics
marital status
Demography
household surveys
health promotion
diet recall
sociodemographic characteristics
cigarettes
gender
Food
caffeine
blood serum
folic acid
diet
blood lipids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Dietary differences in smokers and nonsmokers from two southeastern New England communities. / McPhillips, Janice B.; Eaton, Charles B.; Gans, Kim M.; Derby, Carol A.; Lasater, Thomas M.; McKenney, Joyce L.; Carleton, Richard A.

In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 94, No. 3, 1994, p. 287-292.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McPhillips, Janice B. ; Eaton, Charles B. ; Gans, Kim M. ; Derby, Carol A. ; Lasater, Thomas M. ; McKenney, Joyce L. ; Carleton, Richard A. / Dietary differences in smokers and nonsmokers from two southeastern New England communities. In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1994 ; Vol. 94, No. 3. pp. 287-292.
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abstract = "Objective Previous studies based on 24-hour dietary recall data have shown that smokers tend to consume less healthful diets than nonsmokers. We tested this hypothesis using data from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a group of men and women. Design Characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers were compared using data collected from a cross-sectional household health survey. Subjects Adults aged 18 through 64 years from two communities in southeastern New England were randomly selected for the study and interviewed in their homes by trained personnel. The interview included questions on demographic and behavioral characteristics. Height, weight, blood pressure, and serum lipids were measured using standard protocols. The Willett FFQ was completed by 1,608 of 2,531 eligible respondents who made up our study sample. Statistical analyses performed Respondents were categorized as current cigarette smokers or nonsmokers. Demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and dietary characteristics were compared between smokers and nonsmokers by analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. Results Eligible respondents who did not complete the FFQ differed from respondents with respect to age, gender, smoking prevalence, and several other demographic characteristics. Smokers consumed more energy, fat, alcohol, and caffeine than nonsmokers. Smoking status was inversely associated with intake of vitamins A and C, dietary fiber, folate, and iron among women, whereas differences were smaller and not significant among men. Women who smoked consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables than nonsmokers, but this trend was not noted in men. The association between diet and smoking was only slightly diminished by multivariate adjustment for age, income, regular exercise, marital status, and working status but most clinically relevant associations remained. The interaction between gender and smoking was not statistically significant for most dietary variables. Conclusions These results suggest that health promotion messages targeted to smokers should include dietary instructions, especially for women.",
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AU - Carleton, Richard A.

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N2 - Objective Previous studies based on 24-hour dietary recall data have shown that smokers tend to consume less healthful diets than nonsmokers. We tested this hypothesis using data from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a group of men and women. Design Characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers were compared using data collected from a cross-sectional household health survey. Subjects Adults aged 18 through 64 years from two communities in southeastern New England were randomly selected for the study and interviewed in their homes by trained personnel. The interview included questions on demographic and behavioral characteristics. Height, weight, blood pressure, and serum lipids were measured using standard protocols. The Willett FFQ was completed by 1,608 of 2,531 eligible respondents who made up our study sample. Statistical analyses performed Respondents were categorized as current cigarette smokers or nonsmokers. Demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and dietary characteristics were compared between smokers and nonsmokers by analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. Results Eligible respondents who did not complete the FFQ differed from respondents with respect to age, gender, smoking prevalence, and several other demographic characteristics. Smokers consumed more energy, fat, alcohol, and caffeine than nonsmokers. Smoking status was inversely associated with intake of vitamins A and C, dietary fiber, folate, and iron among women, whereas differences were smaller and not significant among men. Women who smoked consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables than nonsmokers, but this trend was not noted in men. The association between diet and smoking was only slightly diminished by multivariate adjustment for age, income, regular exercise, marital status, and working status but most clinically relevant associations remained. The interaction between gender and smoking was not statistically significant for most dietary variables. Conclusions These results suggest that health promotion messages targeted to smokers should include dietary instructions, especially for women.

AB - Objective Previous studies based on 24-hour dietary recall data have shown that smokers tend to consume less healthful diets than nonsmokers. We tested this hypothesis using data from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a group of men and women. Design Characteristics of smokers and nonsmokers were compared using data collected from a cross-sectional household health survey. Subjects Adults aged 18 through 64 years from two communities in southeastern New England were randomly selected for the study and interviewed in their homes by trained personnel. The interview included questions on demographic and behavioral characteristics. Height, weight, blood pressure, and serum lipids were measured using standard protocols. The Willett FFQ was completed by 1,608 of 2,531 eligible respondents who made up our study sample. Statistical analyses performed Respondents were categorized as current cigarette smokers or nonsmokers. Demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and dietary characteristics were compared between smokers and nonsmokers by analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. Results Eligible respondents who did not complete the FFQ differed from respondents with respect to age, gender, smoking prevalence, and several other demographic characteristics. Smokers consumed more energy, fat, alcohol, and caffeine than nonsmokers. Smoking status was inversely associated with intake of vitamins A and C, dietary fiber, folate, and iron among women, whereas differences were smaller and not significant among men. Women who smoked consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables than nonsmokers, but this trend was not noted in men. The association between diet and smoking was only slightly diminished by multivariate adjustment for age, income, regular exercise, marital status, and working status but most clinically relevant associations remained. The interaction between gender and smoking was not statistically significant for most dietary variables. Conclusions These results suggest that health promotion messages targeted to smokers should include dietary instructions, especially for women.

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