Compared to adults, urolithiasis is less common in children, with a definite rise in incidence, especially among young adults (Tasian et al. in Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11:488, 2016). In the last 25 years, the incidence in children has increased by approximately 6–10% annually, for reasons still unknown, with an associated significant increase in related health care-related expenditures (Hyams and Matlaga in Transl Androl Urol 3(3):278–83, 2014). It has been shown that there is twice as high a risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) in stone formers compared to non-stone formers (Tasian et al. 2016). While calcium-containing stones are by far the most common category of stone encountered in both children and adults, non-calcium stones are more common in children than adults and have been shown in several studies to be associated with greater morbidity and lower renal function than calcium stones (Issler et al. in BMC Nephrol 18(1):136, 2017; Gambaro et al. in J Urol 198:268–273, 2017). This could be related to the challenges in the management of non-calcium-containing stones due to associated infection or metabolic derangements, further leading to recurrence and loss of renal function. There is currently a gap in our understanding of how to appropriately and effectively encounter and manage patients with non-calcium-containing stones, as such cases are encountered less frequently. Identification of stone composition and appropriate management is very important to reduce serious complications and recurrence, especially in non-calcium stones. We present a review of diagnosis and management of non-calcium-containing stones in the pediatric population, in hopes of providing more clarity to providers and promoting a consideration of non-calcium stone composition with all children presenting with urolithiasis.
- Challenges in management
- Non-calcium-containing stones
ASJC Scopus subject areas