Background.: As long-term survival after cardiac transplantation improves, neoplastic complications are increasingly being discovered. Although lymphoproliferative disorders predominate, the incidence and clinical spectrum of solid tumors in a uniform population of heart transplant recipients remains uncertain. Methods.: We reviewed our experience with 712 patients who underwent cardiac transplantation. Clinical charts were reviewed and telephone interviews were conducted, when possible. Results.: De novo solid malignancies were identified in 3.3% of patients at risk (21 of 633 patients). Twenty patients were male; mean age was 51.5 ± 8.6 years. Most patients reported a significant smoking history. Pulmonary, urologic, and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most common malignancies identified. Mean interval from transplantation to diagnosis was 35 months. Six patients were diagnosed within 6 months of transplantation. One-year and 5-year survival after transplantation were 90% and 49%, respectively. One-year and 3-year survival after cancer diagnosis were 60% and 52%, respectively. Conclusions.: De novo solid malignancy after transplantation occurred with about half the frequency of lymphoproliferative disorders. A striking male predominance was noted. The interval from transplantation to the appearance of cancer is variable, and no clustering was identified. A significant smoking history warrants aggressive search for occult malignancy during pretransplantation evaluation of potential heart recipients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine