Correlates of bacterial vaginosis over long-term follow-up: Impact of HIV infection

Leslie S. Massad, Charlesnika T. Evans, Raymond Kang, Anna Hotton, Ruth Greenblatt, Howard Minkoff, Kerry Murphy, Christine Colie, Kathleen M. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Correlates of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are poorly understood, especially in HIV infection. In a cohort study, HIV-seropositive and comparison seronegative women were assessed every 6 months during 1994-2015. BV was considered present when three of four Amsel criteria were met. Behavioral characteristics were assessed using structured interviews. Multivariable logistic regression used generalized estimating equation models to determine factors associated with BV. Cumulative incidence of BV over time was assessed using the log-rank test. Among 3,730 women (964 HIV seronegative and 2,766 HIV seropositive) contributing 70,970 visits, BV was diagnosed at 2,586 (14.0%) visits by HIV-seronegative women and 6,224 (11.9%) visits by HIV-seropositive women (p < .0001). The cumulative incidence of BV was 530/964 (55.0%) in HIV-seronegative women and 1,287/2,766 (46.5%) in seropositive women (p < .0001). In adjusted analyses, factors associated with BV were younger age, ethnicity, lower income, less education, recruitment site, recruitment in the 2001-2002 cohort, heavier drinking, current smoking, depression, and sex with a male partner; both hormonal contraception and menopause were negatively associated with BV. Of 533 women with prevalent BV, 228 (42.8%) recurred within a year, while persistent BV was found in 12.8% of participants; neither proportion differed by HIV serostatus. Time trends in the proportion of women with BV at any single visit were not identified. BV is common among women with and at risk for HIV, but HIV infection does not predispose to BV, which is associated instead with behavioral and cultural factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)432-439
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • Amsel criteria
  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • HIV in women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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