Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China

Christopher Kim, Wei Jie Seow, Xiao Ou Shu, Bryan A. Bassig, Nathaniel Rothman, Bingshu E. Chen, Yong Bing Xiang, Howard D. Hosgood, Bu Tian Ji, Wei Hu, Cuiju Wen, Wong Ho Chow, Qiuyin Cai, Gong Yang, Yu Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Qing Lan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1384-1389
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume124
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

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Coal
Cooking
China
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Mortality
Confidence Intervals
Myocardial Ischemia
Vital Statistics
Air Pollution
Proportional Hazards Models
Cardiovascular Diseases
Smoking
History

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China. / Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao Ou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E.; Xiang, Yong Bing; Hosgood, Howard D.; Ji, Bu Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 124, No. 9, 01.09.2016, p. 1384-1389.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, C, Seow, WJ, Shu, XO, Bassig, BA, Rothman, N, Chen, BE, Xiang, YB, Hosgood, HD, Ji, BT, Hu, W, Wen, C, Chow, WH, Cai, Q, Yang, G, Gao, YT, Zheng, W & Lan, Q 2016, 'Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China', Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1384-1389. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP236
Kim, Christopher ; Seow, Wei Jie ; Shu, Xiao Ou ; Bassig, Bryan A. ; Rothman, Nathaniel ; Chen, Bingshu E. ; Xiang, Yong Bing ; Hosgood, Howard D. ; Ji, Bu Tian ; Hu, Wei ; Wen, Cuiju ; Chow, Wong Ho ; Cai, Qiuyin ; Yang, Gong ; Gao, Yu Tang ; Zheng, Wei ; Lan, Qing. / Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2016 ; Vol. 124, No. 9. pp. 1384-1389.
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abstract = "Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63{\%} of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95{\%} CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95{\%} CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95{\%} CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread.",
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T1 - Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study of women in Shanghai, China

AU - Kim, Christopher

AU - Seow, Wei Jie

AU - Shu, Xiao Ou

AU - Bassig, Bryan A.

AU - Rothman, Nathaniel

AU - Chen, Bingshu E.

AU - Xiang, Yong Bing

AU - Hosgood, Howard D.

AU - Ji, Bu Tian

AU - Hu, Wei

AU - Wen, Cuiju

AU - Chow, Wong Ho

AU - Cai, Qiuyin

AU - Yang, Gong

AU - Gao, Yu Tang

AU - Zheng, Wei

AU - Lan, Qing

PY - 2016/9/1

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N2 - Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread.

AB - Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread.

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