Chemotactic responses by macrophages to a directional source of a cytokine delivered by a micropipette

Michael Cammer, Dianne Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Macrophages, which are organized throughout every tissue, represent a key component of the immune system and the recruitment of macrophages to specifi c sites is important in normal host defense. However, when inappropriately recruited macrophages may damage or destroy healthy tissue; this is seen in several autoimmune diseases such as arthritis. Many cytokines, including CSF-1 and chemokines, are often upregulated in inflamed tissues and can induce the directional migration of macrophages towards the highest concentration of the cytokine in a process called chemotaxis. Chemokines were first described as chemoattractant cytokines synthesized at sites of infl ammation that stimulate the directional migration of leukocytes and mediate inflammation. Whereas specific receptors for chemoattractants reside over the entire cell surface, macrophages can detect very shallow chemotactic gradients leading to spatially defined responses to the chemoattractant such as the extension of directed protrusions leading to cell migration. In this chapter we describe a method for the localized delivery of chemoattractants via a micropipette needle to macrophages in culture followed by methods for imaging and an outline of quantifying macrophage responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-135
Number of pages11
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • CSF-1
  • Chemokines
  • Chemotaxis
  • Macrophage
  • Migration
  • Protrusions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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