Loss of function variants in the lysine demethylase 5C (KDM5C) gene account for approximately 0.7–2.8% of X-linked intellectual disability (ID) cases and pose significant burdens for patients and their caregivers. To date, 45 unique variants in KDM5C have been reported in individuals with ID. As a rare disorder, its etiology and natural history remain an area of active investigation, with treatment limited to symptom management. Previous studies have found that males present with moderate to severe ID with significant syndromic comorbidities such as epilepsy, short stature, and craniofacial abnormalities. Although not as well characterized, females have been reported to predominantly display mild to moderate ID with approximately half being asymptomatic. Here, we present caregiver-reported data for 37 unrelated individuals with pathogenic variants in KDM5C; the largest cohort reported to-date. We find that up to 70% of affected females were reported to display syndromic features including gastrointestinal dysfunction and hearing impairment. Additionally, more than half of individuals reported a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or described features consistent with this spectrum. Our data thus provide further evidence of sexually dimorphic heterogeneity in disease presentation and suggest that pathogenic variants in KDM5C may be more common than previously assumed.
- intellectual disability
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