Many types of cancer are now curable or, if not cured, becoming a chronic illness. In 2012, it was estimated that there were more than 13,500,000 cancer survivors in the United States. Late outcomes of these survivors are increasingly related to cardiovascular disease, either as a consequence of the direct effects of cancer therapy or its adverse effects on traditional cardiac risk factors (eg, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus). This article describes the therapies that have led to advances in cancer survival and the acute and chronic cardiovascular toxicities associated with these therapies. Recommendations are made for the surveillance and management of cancer survivors. Published guidelines on the subject of cardio-oncology are reviewed in light of clinical experience caring for these patients. To SUPPL.ement this cancer-related knowledge base, appropriateness criteria and guidelines for cardiac care in the general population were extrapolated to cancer survivors. The result is a series of recommendations for surveillance and management of cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors.
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