ATM and ATR check in on origins: A dynamic model for origin selection and activation

David Shechter, Jean Gautier

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

Initiation of DNA replication occurs at origins of replication, traditionally defined by specific sequence elements. Sequence-dependent initiation of replication is the rule in prokaryotes and in the yeast Saccharomyces cereviseae. However, sequence-dependent initiation does not appear to be absolutely required in metazoan eukaryotes. Origin firing is instead likely dependent on stochastic initiation from chromatin-defined loci, despite the demonstration of some specific origins. Based on some recent observations in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and in mammalian cell culture, we propose that timing of origin firing is dependent on feedback from active replicons. This dynamic regulation of replication is mediated by sensing of ongoing replication by the DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR, which in turn downregulate neighboring and distal origins and replicons by inhibition of the S-phase kinases Cdk2 and Cdc7 and by inhibition of the replicative Mcm helicase. Origin selection, activation, and replicon progression are therefore constrained in both space and time via feedback from the cell cycle and ongoing replication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-240
Number of pages3
JournalCell Cycle
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ATM
  • ATR
  • Checkpoints
  • Origin selection
  • Origins of replication
  • Replication initiation
  • Replicon
  • Xenopus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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