To evaluate the approach to management of localized prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 HIV-positive patients who recently presented with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and clinically localized PCa. At the diagnosis of PCa, the average patient was 54.0 years old, had been HIV positive for 8.75 years, had a CD4 count of 417, a prostate-specific antigen level of 9.2 ng/mL, and a Gleason score of 6. Eight of the patients had risk factors for PCa - either African-American descent (n = 6) or a positive family history (n = 2). The treatment was laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 1, potency-preserving androgen deprivation in 1, cryosurgery in 1, brachytherapy in 2, observation in 2, and external beam radiotherapy in 3. Screening of all HIV-positive men should be initiated at age 40 if they have either a positive family history of prostate cancer or are of African-American descent. Asymptomatic HIV-positive patients should be offered all therapeutic PCa treatment options.
ASJC Scopus subject areas