Anogenital neoplasia in AIDS

Mark H. Einstein, Anna S. Kadish

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose of review: We review the recent literature on anogenital neoplasms in AIDS, with emphasis on cancers associated with HPV infection. Immune reactivity to HPV as well as novel immunotherapeutic and preventative strategies are discussed. Recent findings: Many AIDS-associated neoplasms are associated with HPV infection. Whether cervical cancer is truly an AIDS-associated neoplasm has recently been questioned, while the association of anal cancer with AIDS in both males and females is more convincing. Recent reports cast doubt on the efficacy of HAART therapy for HPV-induced anogenital neoplasms, despite efficacy in improving disease caused by other infectious agents. We include here new data on humoral and cellular immune responses to HPV. VLP serology has been reported to be associated with outcome of cervical cancer. VLP seropositivity has been reported to be a favorable prognostic sign in women with HPV 16 positive cervical carcinoma. Several investigators have questioned the immunogenicity of the oncogenic HPV type 16 compared with other HPV types. It has recently been found that in HIV-infected patients, lymphoproliferative cellular immune responses (CMI) to HPV 16 peptides are not associated with CD4 counts, whereas responses to recall antigens and mitogens are associated with CD4 counts. CD4 + T cells may not be responsible for protective cellular immune responses to HPV. VLP serology and CMI responses may be the future intermediate surrogate biomarkers for HPV-associated anogenital neoplasia trials. Several new therapeutic vaccine strategies for management of HPV-induced neoplasia are reviewed. Summary: Most anogenital neoplasms occurring with increased frequency in patients with HIV/AIDS are associated with HPV infections. Current treatment strategies are not effective in clearing anogenital HPV infection and need improvement. Immunotherapy with novel vaccines will provide both prevention and therapy for these common malignancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-462
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Oncology
Volume16
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Anogenital neoplasms
  • Cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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