Angiotensin II (Ang II) is today considered as one of the essential factors in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, producing acute hemodynamic and chronic pleiotropic effects. Although now it is widely accepted that these chronic effects are important, Ang II was initially considered only a short-acting, vasoactive hormone. This view was modified a quarter of a century ago when Dr Owens and his group published an article in Circulation Research with initial evidence that Ang II can act as a growth factor that regulates cell hypertrophy. They showed in a series of elegant experiments that Ang II promotes hypertrophy and hyperploidy of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. However, Ang II had no effect on hyperplasia. These findings led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the roles of growth factors and vasoactive substances in cardiovascular pathology and helped to redirect basic and clinical renin-angiotensin system research during the next 25 years. Ang II is now known to be a pleiotropic hormone that uses multiple signaling pathways to influence most processes that contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, ranging from hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac remodeling, fibrosis, and inflammation to oxidative stress.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine