Anesthetic inhibition in ischemic and nonischemic murine heart: Comparison with conscious echocardiographic approach

Shin Takuma, Kotaro Suehiro, Carol Cardinale, Takeshi Hozumi, Hideaki Yano, Juichiro Shimizu, Samantha Mullis-Jansson, Robert Sciacca, Jie Wang, Daniel Burkhoff, Marco R. Di Tullio, Shunichi Homma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


It is well known that the level of anesthesia obtained by intraperitoneal injection is variable and may alter cardiac function. In this study, we compared the effects of different anesthetics on cardiac function with the conscious state using high-resolution two-dimensional echocardiography in nonischemic and ischemic mice. Eighty-four mice were tested before and after surgery with ligation of the coronary artery. All 84 mice were studied in the conscious state and under high-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia. Twenty-two of 84 mice were studied under low-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia. Another 22 mice were also studied under gas anesthesia and spontaneous breathing. Experiments in the conscious state were performed by two investigators before the administration of anesthesia: one investigator held the animal and the transducer and the other operated the ultrasound equipment. Left ventricular systolic function was measured, and measurements obtained after surgery were compared with infarcted areas assessed by histological staining. Results showed that both high- and low-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia significantly reduced heart rates and left ventricular contractility in both pre- and postsurgical mice as opposed to conscious mice (P < 0.01). There were significantly higher correlation coefficients between mean fractional area change (FAC) and infarcted area in conscious state compared with high-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficient between FAC and infarcted area during gas anesthesia was also significantly higher compared with high-dose intraperitoneal anesthesia (P < 0.05). In conclusion, conscious experiments or the use of gas anesthesia is preferred for echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in mice because intraperitoneal injection significantly induces a significant reduction in heart rate and left ventricular systolic function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H2364-H2370
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number5 49-5
StatePublished - May 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac function
  • Intraperitoneal
  • M-mode
  • Noninvasive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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