An integrative review of mechanotransduction in endothelial, epithelial (renal) and dendritic cells (osteocytes)

Sheldon Weinbaum, Yi Duan, Mia M. Thi, Lidan You

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this review we will examine from a biomechanical and ultrastructural viewpoint how the cytoskeletal specialization of three basic cell types, endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells (renal tubule) and dendritic cells (osteocytes), enables the mechano-sensing of fluid flow in both their native in vivo environment and in culture, and the downstream signaling that is initiated at the molecular level in response to fluid flow. These cellular responses will be discussed in terms of basic mysteries and paradoxes encountered by each cell type. In ECs fluid shear stress (FSS) is nearly entirely attenuated by the endothelial glycocalyx that covers their apical membrane and yet FSS is communicated to both intracellular and junctional molecular components in activating a wide variety of signaling pathways. The same is true in proximal tubule (PT) cells where a dense brush border of microvilli covers the apical surface and the flow at the apical membrane is negligible. A four decade old unexplained mystery is the ability of PT epithelia to reliably reabsorb 60% of the flow entering the tubule regardless of the glomerular filtration rate. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD) the flow rates are so low that a special sensing apparatus, a primary cilia is needed to detect very small variations in tubular flow. In bone it has been a century old mystery as to how osteocytes embedded in a stiff mineralized tissue are able to sense miniscule whole tissue strains that are far smaller than the cellular level strains required to activate osteocytes in vitro.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)510-537
Number of pages28
JournalCellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Fingerprint

Mechanotransduction
Dendritic Cells
Osteocytes
Endothelial cells
Shear stress
Flow of fluids
Epithelial Cells
Tissue
Microvilli
Membranes
Kidney
Endothelial Cells
Fluids
Cell
Brushes
Shear Stress
Ducts
Fluid Flow
Glycocalyx
Bone

Keywords

  • Actin cortical web
  • Actin filament bundles
  • Bone cell processes
  • Brush border microvilli
  • Cortical collecting duct
  • Endothelial glycocalyx
  • Integrin attachments
  • Lacunar-canalicular system
  • Proximal tubule

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Modeling and Simulation

Cite this

An integrative review of mechanotransduction in endothelial, epithelial (renal) and dendritic cells (osteocytes). / Weinbaum, Sheldon; Duan, Yi; Thi, Mia M.; You, Lidan.

In: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, 12.2011, p. 510-537.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7d52c3bd26ff4fca861a0aba05c88038,
title = "An integrative review of mechanotransduction in endothelial, epithelial (renal) and dendritic cells (osteocytes)",
abstract = "In this review we will examine from a biomechanical and ultrastructural viewpoint how the cytoskeletal specialization of three basic cell types, endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells (renal tubule) and dendritic cells (osteocytes), enables the mechano-sensing of fluid flow in both their native in vivo environment and in culture, and the downstream signaling that is initiated at the molecular level in response to fluid flow. These cellular responses will be discussed in terms of basic mysteries and paradoxes encountered by each cell type. In ECs fluid shear stress (FSS) is nearly entirely attenuated by the endothelial glycocalyx that covers their apical membrane and yet FSS is communicated to both intracellular and junctional molecular components in activating a wide variety of signaling pathways. The same is true in proximal tubule (PT) cells where a dense brush border of microvilli covers the apical surface and the flow at the apical membrane is negligible. A four decade old unexplained mystery is the ability of PT epithelia to reliably reabsorb 60{\%} of the flow entering the tubule regardless of the glomerular filtration rate. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD) the flow rates are so low that a special sensing apparatus, a primary cilia is needed to detect very small variations in tubular flow. In bone it has been a century old mystery as to how osteocytes embedded in a stiff mineralized tissue are able to sense miniscule whole tissue strains that are far smaller than the cellular level strains required to activate osteocytes in vitro.",
keywords = "Actin cortical web, Actin filament bundles, Bone cell processes, Brush border microvilli, Cortical collecting duct, Endothelial glycocalyx, Integrin attachments, Lacunar-canalicular system, Proximal tubule",
author = "Sheldon Weinbaum and Yi Duan and Thi, {Mia M.} and Lidan You",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1007/s12195-011-0179-6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "4",
pages = "510--537",
journal = "Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering",
issn = "1865-5025",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - An integrative review of mechanotransduction in endothelial, epithelial (renal) and dendritic cells (osteocytes)

AU - Weinbaum, Sheldon

AU - Duan, Yi

AU - Thi, Mia M.

AU - You, Lidan

PY - 2011/12

Y1 - 2011/12

N2 - In this review we will examine from a biomechanical and ultrastructural viewpoint how the cytoskeletal specialization of three basic cell types, endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells (renal tubule) and dendritic cells (osteocytes), enables the mechano-sensing of fluid flow in both their native in vivo environment and in culture, and the downstream signaling that is initiated at the molecular level in response to fluid flow. These cellular responses will be discussed in terms of basic mysteries and paradoxes encountered by each cell type. In ECs fluid shear stress (FSS) is nearly entirely attenuated by the endothelial glycocalyx that covers their apical membrane and yet FSS is communicated to both intracellular and junctional molecular components in activating a wide variety of signaling pathways. The same is true in proximal tubule (PT) cells where a dense brush border of microvilli covers the apical surface and the flow at the apical membrane is negligible. A four decade old unexplained mystery is the ability of PT epithelia to reliably reabsorb 60% of the flow entering the tubule regardless of the glomerular filtration rate. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD) the flow rates are so low that a special sensing apparatus, a primary cilia is needed to detect very small variations in tubular flow. In bone it has been a century old mystery as to how osteocytes embedded in a stiff mineralized tissue are able to sense miniscule whole tissue strains that are far smaller than the cellular level strains required to activate osteocytes in vitro.

AB - In this review we will examine from a biomechanical and ultrastructural viewpoint how the cytoskeletal specialization of three basic cell types, endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells (renal tubule) and dendritic cells (osteocytes), enables the mechano-sensing of fluid flow in both their native in vivo environment and in culture, and the downstream signaling that is initiated at the molecular level in response to fluid flow. These cellular responses will be discussed in terms of basic mysteries and paradoxes encountered by each cell type. In ECs fluid shear stress (FSS) is nearly entirely attenuated by the endothelial glycocalyx that covers their apical membrane and yet FSS is communicated to both intracellular and junctional molecular components in activating a wide variety of signaling pathways. The same is true in proximal tubule (PT) cells where a dense brush border of microvilli covers the apical surface and the flow at the apical membrane is negligible. A four decade old unexplained mystery is the ability of PT epithelia to reliably reabsorb 60% of the flow entering the tubule regardless of the glomerular filtration rate. In the cortical collecting duct (CCD) the flow rates are so low that a special sensing apparatus, a primary cilia is needed to detect very small variations in tubular flow. In bone it has been a century old mystery as to how osteocytes embedded in a stiff mineralized tissue are able to sense miniscule whole tissue strains that are far smaller than the cellular level strains required to activate osteocytes in vitro.

KW - Actin cortical web

KW - Actin filament bundles

KW - Bone cell processes

KW - Brush border microvilli

KW - Cortical collecting duct

KW - Endothelial glycocalyx

KW - Integrin attachments

KW - Lacunar-canalicular system

KW - Proximal tubule

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856457221&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84856457221&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s12195-011-0179-6

DO - 10.1007/s12195-011-0179-6

M3 - Article

VL - 4

SP - 510

EP - 537

JO - Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

JF - Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering

SN - 1865-5025

IS - 4

ER -