Amphetamine has powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant actions, in addition to peripheral actions typical of indirect sympathomimetic drugs. Main effects of acute administration are wakefulness, decreased sense of fatigue, elevation of mood, and increased ability to concentrate. Amphetamine also suppresses appetite. Most of amphetamine's effects are believed to be due to its ability to stimulate the release of biogenic amines (norepinephrine and dopamine) from their storage sites in the nerve terminals. The acute toxic effects of amphetamine (tremor, irritability, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, delirium, and hallucinations) are extension of the pharmacological effects and may be due to an increased release of serotonin from nerve terminals, or to direct effects on serotoninergic neurons. Methamphetamine has effects similar to amphetamine, although CNS effects are more pronounced and peripheral ones are less prominent. Methamphetamine has a high potential for abuse. Chronic exposure may lead to severe damage to dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences|
|Number of pages||1|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2014|
- Appetite suppression
- Drugs of abuse
ASJC Scopus subject areas