Amphetamines

L. G. Costa, Michael Aschner

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Amphetamine has powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant actions, in addition to peripheral actions typical of indirect sympathomimetic drugs. Main effects of acute administration are wakefulness, decreased sense of fatigue, elevation of mood, and increased ability to concentrate. Amphetamine also suppresses appetite. Most of amphetamine's effects are believed to be due to its ability to stimulate the release of biogenic amines (norepinephrine and dopamine) from their storage sites in the nerve terminals. The acute toxic effects of amphetamine (tremor, irritability, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, delirium, and hallucinations) are extension of the pharmacological effects and may be due to an increased release of serotonin from nerve terminals, or to direct effects on serotoninergic neurons. Methamphetamine has effects similar to amphetamine, although CNS effects are more pronounced and peripheral ones are less prominent. Methamphetamine has a high potential for abuse. Chronic exposure may lead to severe damage to dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages1
ISBN (Electronic)9780123851574
ISBN (Print)9780123851581
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Keywords

  • Amphetamine
  • Appetite suppression
  • Dopamine
  • Drugs of abuse
  • Methamphetamine
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Parkinsonism
  • Psychosis
  • Serotonin
  • Wakefulness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Costa, L. G., & Aschner, M. (2014). Amphetamines. In Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385157-4.00248-7