Acute in vitro effects on embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures by in silico predicted neurotoxic chemicals: Evaluations on cytotoxicity, neurite length, and neurophysiology

Andrew F.M. Johnstone, Cina M. Mack, Matthew C. Valdez, Timothy J. Shafer, Richard M. LoPachin, David W. Herr, Prasada Rao S. Kodavanti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The Hard-Soft Acid and Base hypothesis can be used to predict the potential bio-reactivity (electrophilicity) of a chemical with intracellular proteins, resulting in neurotoxicity. Twelve chemicals predicted to be neurotoxic were evaluated in vitro in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for effects on cytotoxicity (%LDH), neuronal structure (total neurite length/neuron, NLPN), and neurophysiology (mean firing rate, MFR). DRGs were treated acutely on days in vitro (DIV) 7 (1–100 μM) with test chemical; %LDH and NLPN were measured after 48 h. 4-cyclohexylhexanone (4-C) increased %LDH release at 50 (29%) and 100 μM (56%), citronellal (Cit) and 1-bromopropane increased %LDH at 100 μM (22% and 26%). 4-C, Cit, 2,5 Hexanedione (2,5Hex), phenylacetylaldehyde (PAA) and 2-ethylhexanal decreased mean NLPN at 48 h; 50 and 100 μM for 4-C (28% and 60%), 100 μM Cit (52%), 100 μM 2,5- Hex (37%) 100 μM PAA (41%) and 100 μM for 2-ethylhexanal (23%). Separate DRG cultures were treated on DIV 14 and changes in MFR measured. Four compounds decreased MFR at 50 or 100 μM: Acrylamide (−83%), 3,4-dichloro-1-butene (−93%), 4-C (−89%) and hexane (−79%, 50 μM). Changes in MFR and NLPN occurred in absence of cytotoxicity. While the current study showed little cytotoxicity, it gave insight to initial changes in MFR. Results provide insight for future chronic exposure experiments to evaluate neurotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104989
JournalToxicology in Vitro
Volume69
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Adverse outcome pathway
  • Cell culture
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Dorsal root ganglion
  • Electrophilicity
  • Microelectrode arrays
  • Neurite length
  • Neuropathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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