A skin dose prediction model based on in vivo dosimetry and ultrasound skin bridge measurements during intraoperative breast radiation therapy

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Purpose: Using in vivo measurements from optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) to develop and validate a prediction model for estimating the skin dose received by patients undergoing breast intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Methods and Materials: IORT was performed using INTRABEAM-600 with spherical applicators placed in the lumpectomy cavity. Ultrasound skin bridge measurements were used to determine the applicator-to-skin distance, with OSLDs placed to measure the skin surface dose at the corresponding points. The OSLD response was calibrated for the 50 kVp INTRABEAM-600 output. Models were fit to describe the dose fall-off with increasing applicator-to-skin distance and the best fitting model was chosen for estimating skin dose. Results: Twenty four patients with 25 lumpectomy cavities were included, and the average skin dose recorded was 1.18 Gy ± 0.88 Gy, ranging from 0.17 Gy to 4.77 Gy, with an average applicator-to-skin distance of 19.9 mm ± 5.1 mm. An exponential-plateau model was found to best describe the dose fall-off with a root-mean-square error of 0.73. This model was then validated prospectively using skin dose measurements from five consecutive patients. Validation measurements were well within the 95% prediction limits of the model, with a root-mean-square error of 0.52, showing that the prediction model accurately estimates skin dose using ultrasound skin bridge measurements. Conclusions: This prediction model constitutes a useful tool for estimating the skin dose received during breast lumpectomy IORT. The model and accompanying 95% confidence intervals can be used to establish a minimum allowable skin bridge distance, effectively limiting the maximum allowable skin dose.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)720-726
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019



  • Breast cancer
  • Intraoperative radiation
  • Prediction models
  • Skin dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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