MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of gene expression in numerous biological processes. Their maturation process is herein described, including the most updated insights from the current literature. Circa 2000 miR sequences have been identified in the human genome, with over 50,000 miR-target interactions, including enzymes involved in epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Moreover, some “pieces of RNA” previously annotated as noncoding have been recently found to encode micropeptides that carry out critical mechanistic functions in the cell. Advanced techniques now available will certainly allow a precise scanning of the genome looking for micropeptides hidden within the “noncoding” RNA.