Pacemaker implantation in children

A 21-year experience

C. A. Walsh, H. F. McAlister, Carolyn A. Andrews, C. N. Steeg, R. Eisenberg, S. Furman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Forty-one children, 20 boys and 21 girls, aged 11 days to 19 years (mean 9.9 years) at initial pacemaker implant, were followed 1 to 248 months (mean 90 months). Ten (mean age 8.2 years) were implanted between 1966 and 1972 (Group I), 14 (mean age 9.9 years) between 1973 and 1980 (Group II) and 17 (mean age 10.9 years) from 1981 through April 1988 (Group III). Arrhythmias were congenital complete heart block in 19, postoperative heart block in 15, acquired heart block in 3, sick sinus syndrome in 3, and bradycardia-induced ventricular fibrillation in 1. Twenty-eight of 41 children had a transvenous implant: 40% of Group I, 71% of Group II, and 82% of Group III. Thirteen were cephalic, four subclavian and 11 jugular. Generator site was pectoral in 19, abdominal in 12, intrathoracic in one, and retromammary in nine of 12 girls aged over 10 years or more at implant. In Groups I, II and III, 5, 14 and 6 had VOO or VVI units; 5, 0 and 8 dual chamber (VAT, VDD and DDD) pacemakers; 0, 0 and 1 AAI; and 0, 0 and 2 rate-modulated (VVIR) units at initial implant. The average interval between pacer-related hospitalizations in Groups I, II and III was 20, 42, and 39 months. Complications included infection in six, hemothorax in one, and impending pacemaker erosion in one. Six patients died, one of pacer infection, four from primary cardiac disease, and one suddenly without apparent reason. Follow-up continues in 31: 14 are employed full-time, three are homemakers, eight are full-time students, and six are active pre-schoolers. Four women have had normal children. We conclude: (1) children with implanted pacemakers can have a normal lifestyle, with prognosis based on underlying cardiac disease; (2) elective epicardial electrodes are now rarely needed; (3) implantation via the cephalic vein is feasible and complication-free; (4) retromammary implant is technically easy and cosmetic; (5) dual chamber and rate-modulated pacemakers can be utilized effectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1940-1944
Number of pages5
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Volume11
Issue number11 II
StatePublished - 1988

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Heart Block
Heart Diseases
Hospitalization Insurance
Head
Hemothorax
Sick Sinus Syndrome
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
Ventricular Fibrillation
Bradycardia
Infection
Cosmetics
Life Style
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Veins
Electrodes
Neck
Students
Congenital heart block

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Walsh, C. A., McAlister, H. F., Andrews, C. A., Steeg, C. N., Eisenberg, R., & Furman, S. (1988). Pacemaker implantation in children: A 21-year experience. PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 11(11 II), 1940-1944.

Pacemaker implantation in children : A 21-year experience. / Walsh, C. A.; McAlister, H. F.; Andrews, Carolyn A.; Steeg, C. N.; Eisenberg, R.; Furman, S.

In: PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol. 11, No. 11 II, 1988, p. 1940-1944.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walsh, CA, McAlister, HF, Andrews, CA, Steeg, CN, Eisenberg, R & Furman, S 1988, 'Pacemaker implantation in children: A 21-year experience', PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 11, no. 11 II, pp. 1940-1944.
Walsh CA, McAlister HF, Andrews CA, Steeg CN, Eisenberg R, Furman S. Pacemaker implantation in children: A 21-year experience. PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 1988;11(11 II):1940-1944.
Walsh, C. A. ; McAlister, H. F. ; Andrews, Carolyn A. ; Steeg, C. N. ; Eisenberg, R. ; Furman, S. / Pacemaker implantation in children : A 21-year experience. In: PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 1988 ; Vol. 11, No. 11 II. pp. 1940-1944.
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abstract = "Forty-one children, 20 boys and 21 girls, aged 11 days to 19 years (mean 9.9 years) at initial pacemaker implant, were followed 1 to 248 months (mean 90 months). Ten (mean age 8.2 years) were implanted between 1966 and 1972 (Group I), 14 (mean age 9.9 years) between 1973 and 1980 (Group II) and 17 (mean age 10.9 years) from 1981 through April 1988 (Group III). Arrhythmias were congenital complete heart block in 19, postoperative heart block in 15, acquired heart block in 3, sick sinus syndrome in 3, and bradycardia-induced ventricular fibrillation in 1. Twenty-eight of 41 children had a transvenous implant: 40{\%} of Group I, 71{\%} of Group II, and 82{\%} of Group III. Thirteen were cephalic, four subclavian and 11 jugular. Generator site was pectoral in 19, abdominal in 12, intrathoracic in one, and retromammary in nine of 12 girls aged over 10 years or more at implant. In Groups I, II and III, 5, 14 and 6 had VOO or VVI units; 5, 0 and 8 dual chamber (VAT, VDD and DDD) pacemakers; 0, 0 and 1 AAI; and 0, 0 and 2 rate-modulated (VVIR) units at initial implant. The average interval between pacer-related hospitalizations in Groups I, II and III was 20, 42, and 39 months. Complications included infection in six, hemothorax in one, and impending pacemaker erosion in one. Six patients died, one of pacer infection, four from primary cardiac disease, and one suddenly without apparent reason. Follow-up continues in 31: 14 are employed full-time, three are homemakers, eight are full-time students, and six are active pre-schoolers. Four women have had normal children. We conclude: (1) children with implanted pacemakers can have a normal lifestyle, with prognosis based on underlying cardiac disease; (2) elective epicardial electrodes are now rarely needed; (3) implantation via the cephalic vein is feasible and complication-free; (4) retromammary implant is technically easy and cosmetic; (5) dual chamber and rate-modulated pacemakers can be utilized effectively.",
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AU - Furman, S.

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N2 - Forty-one children, 20 boys and 21 girls, aged 11 days to 19 years (mean 9.9 years) at initial pacemaker implant, were followed 1 to 248 months (mean 90 months). Ten (mean age 8.2 years) were implanted between 1966 and 1972 (Group I), 14 (mean age 9.9 years) between 1973 and 1980 (Group II) and 17 (mean age 10.9 years) from 1981 through April 1988 (Group III). Arrhythmias were congenital complete heart block in 19, postoperative heart block in 15, acquired heart block in 3, sick sinus syndrome in 3, and bradycardia-induced ventricular fibrillation in 1. Twenty-eight of 41 children had a transvenous implant: 40% of Group I, 71% of Group II, and 82% of Group III. Thirteen were cephalic, four subclavian and 11 jugular. Generator site was pectoral in 19, abdominal in 12, intrathoracic in one, and retromammary in nine of 12 girls aged over 10 years or more at implant. In Groups I, II and III, 5, 14 and 6 had VOO or VVI units; 5, 0 and 8 dual chamber (VAT, VDD and DDD) pacemakers; 0, 0 and 1 AAI; and 0, 0 and 2 rate-modulated (VVIR) units at initial implant. The average interval between pacer-related hospitalizations in Groups I, II and III was 20, 42, and 39 months. Complications included infection in six, hemothorax in one, and impending pacemaker erosion in one. Six patients died, one of pacer infection, four from primary cardiac disease, and one suddenly without apparent reason. Follow-up continues in 31: 14 are employed full-time, three are homemakers, eight are full-time students, and six are active pre-schoolers. Four women have had normal children. We conclude: (1) children with implanted pacemakers can have a normal lifestyle, with prognosis based on underlying cardiac disease; (2) elective epicardial electrodes are now rarely needed; (3) implantation via the cephalic vein is feasible and complication-free; (4) retromammary implant is technically easy and cosmetic; (5) dual chamber and rate-modulated pacemakers can be utilized effectively.

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