Characterization of the metabolic forms of 6-thioguanine responsible for cytotoxicity and induction of differentiation of HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

K. Ishiguro, Edward L. Schwartz, A. C. Sartorelli

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Abstract

HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells that lack hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity have been developed by mutagenization and selection. These cells exhibited markedly decreased sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 6-thioguanine (TG) and, in contrast to parental HL-60 cells, had the capacity to undergo terminal granulocytic differentiation after treatment with this purine antimetabolite. Analysis of extracellular and intracellular metabolites of TG revealed negligible metabolism of TG in these HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These findings are consistent with the concept that inhibition of cellular replication requires generation of analog nucleotide and suggest that TG itself is capable of inititation of differentiation. 6-Thioguanosine (TGuo) had limited activity, while β-2'-deoxythioguanosine (dTGuo) was inactive, as an inducer of maturation of HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These cells converted relatively large amounts of the nucleosides to the free base TG; the simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-aminoguanosine (AGuo), an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity, decreased the degradation of TGuo and dTGuo to TG and promoted the intracellular accumulation of TG nucleotides, presumably through the action of nucleoside kinase activities. In a double mutant deficient in both HGPRT and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) activities, dtGuo was devoid of cytotoxicity and was an effective inducer of maturation. The potency of dTGuo as an inducer in this system was not significantly affected by the presence of AGuo. These results suggested that dTGuo itself was also an active initiator of maturation. Thus, induction of differentiation appeared to be due to the free base, TG, as well as its deoxynucleoside form, dTGuo, whereas the formation of TG nucleotides appeared to antagonize maturation and produce cytotoxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)383-390
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cellular Physiology
Volume121
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1984

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Thioguanine
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
Cytotoxicity
Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
HL-60 Cells
nucleoside phosphotransferase
Deoxycytidine Kinase
Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase
Antimetabolites
Metabolites
Nucleosides
Metabolism
Degradation
6-thioguanylic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Physiology

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of the metabolic forms of 6-thioguanine responsible for cytotoxicity and induction of differentiation of HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells",
abstract = "HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells that lack hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity have been developed by mutagenization and selection. These cells exhibited markedly decreased sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 6-thioguanine (TG) and, in contrast to parental HL-60 cells, had the capacity to undergo terminal granulocytic differentiation after treatment with this purine antimetabolite. Analysis of extracellular and intracellular metabolites of TG revealed negligible metabolism of TG in these HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These findings are consistent with the concept that inhibition of cellular replication requires generation of analog nucleotide and suggest that TG itself is capable of inititation of differentiation. 6-Thioguanosine (TGuo) had limited activity, while β-2'-deoxythioguanosine (dTGuo) was inactive, as an inducer of maturation of HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These cells converted relatively large amounts of the nucleosides to the free base TG; the simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-aminoguanosine (AGuo), an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity, decreased the degradation of TGuo and dTGuo to TG and promoted the intracellular accumulation of TG nucleotides, presumably through the action of nucleoside kinase activities. In a double mutant deficient in both HGPRT and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) activities, dtGuo was devoid of cytotoxicity and was an effective inducer of maturation. The potency of dTGuo as an inducer in this system was not significantly affected by the presence of AGuo. These results suggested that dTGuo itself was also an active initiator of maturation. Thus, induction of differentiation appeared to be due to the free base, TG, as well as its deoxynucleoside form, dTGuo, whereas the formation of TG nucleotides appeared to antagonize maturation and produce cytotoxicity.",
author = "K. Ishiguro and Schwartz, {Edward L.} and Sartorelli, {A. C.}",
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AU - Ishiguro, K.

AU - Schwartz, Edward L.

AU - Sartorelli, A. C.

PY - 1984

Y1 - 1984

N2 - HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells that lack hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity have been developed by mutagenization and selection. These cells exhibited markedly decreased sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 6-thioguanine (TG) and, in contrast to parental HL-60 cells, had the capacity to undergo terminal granulocytic differentiation after treatment with this purine antimetabolite. Analysis of extracellular and intracellular metabolites of TG revealed negligible metabolism of TG in these HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These findings are consistent with the concept that inhibition of cellular replication requires generation of analog nucleotide and suggest that TG itself is capable of inititation of differentiation. 6-Thioguanosine (TGuo) had limited activity, while β-2'-deoxythioguanosine (dTGuo) was inactive, as an inducer of maturation of HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These cells converted relatively large amounts of the nucleosides to the free base TG; the simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-aminoguanosine (AGuo), an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity, decreased the degradation of TGuo and dTGuo to TG and promoted the intracellular accumulation of TG nucleotides, presumably through the action of nucleoside kinase activities. In a double mutant deficient in both HGPRT and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) activities, dtGuo was devoid of cytotoxicity and was an effective inducer of maturation. The potency of dTGuo as an inducer in this system was not significantly affected by the presence of AGuo. These results suggested that dTGuo itself was also an active initiator of maturation. Thus, induction of differentiation appeared to be due to the free base, TG, as well as its deoxynucleoside form, dTGuo, whereas the formation of TG nucleotides appeared to antagonize maturation and produce cytotoxicity.

AB - HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells that lack hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity have been developed by mutagenization and selection. These cells exhibited markedly decreased sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of 6-thioguanine (TG) and, in contrast to parental HL-60 cells, had the capacity to undergo terminal granulocytic differentiation after treatment with this purine antimetabolite. Analysis of extracellular and intracellular metabolites of TG revealed negligible metabolism of TG in these HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These findings are consistent with the concept that inhibition of cellular replication requires generation of analog nucleotide and suggest that TG itself is capable of inititation of differentiation. 6-Thioguanosine (TGuo) had limited activity, while β-2'-deoxythioguanosine (dTGuo) was inactive, as an inducer of maturation of HGPRT- HL-60 cells. These cells converted relatively large amounts of the nucleosides to the free base TG; the simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-aminoguanosine (AGuo), an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity, decreased the degradation of TGuo and dTGuo to TG and promoted the intracellular accumulation of TG nucleotides, presumably through the action of nucleoside kinase activities. In a double mutant deficient in both HGPRT and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) activities, dtGuo was devoid of cytotoxicity and was an effective inducer of maturation. The potency of dTGuo as an inducer in this system was not significantly affected by the presence of AGuo. These results suggested that dTGuo itself was also an active initiator of maturation. Thus, induction of differentiation appeared to be due to the free base, TG, as well as its deoxynucleoside form, dTGuo, whereas the formation of TG nucleotides appeared to antagonize maturation and produce cytotoxicity.

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