Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010

A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

Theo Vos, Abraham D. Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Rafael Lozano, Catherine Michaud, Majid Ezzati, Kenji Shibuya, Joshua A. Salomon, Safa Abdalla, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Ilana Ackerman, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y. Ahn, Mohammed K. Ali, Mohammad A. Almazroa, Miriam Alvarado, H. Ross Anderson, Laurie M. Anderson, Kathryn G. Andrews & 338 others Charles Atkinson, Larry M. Baddour, Adil N. Bahalim, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Lope H. Barrero, David H. Bartels, Maria Gloria Basáñez, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L. Bell, Emelia J. Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Eduardo Bernabé, Kavi Bhalla, Bishal Bhandari, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, James A. Black, Hannah Blencowe, Jed D. Blore, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Audrey Bonaventure, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Tasanee Braithwaite, Carol Brayne, Lisa Bridgett, Simon Brooker, Peter Brooks, Traolach S. Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M. Budke, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Roy Burstein, Bianca Calabria, Benjamin Campbell, Charles E. Canter, Hélène Carabin, Jonathan Carapetis, Loreto Carmona, Claudia Cella, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Andrew Tai Ann Cheng, David Chou, Sumeet S. Chugh, Luc E. Coffeng, Steven D. Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K. Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D. Connor, Leslie T. Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville De Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C. Cowie, Michael H. Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C. Dabhadkar, Manu Dahiya, Nabila Dahodwala, James Damsere-Derry, Goodarz Danaei, Adrian Davis, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert Dellavalle, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Sarah Derrett, Don C. Des Jarlais, Samath D. Dharmaratne, Mukesh Dherani, Cesar Diaz-Torne, Helen Dolk, E. Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Suad Eltahir Ali, Holly Erskine, Patricia J. Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Stalin E. Ewoigbokhan, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery Feigin, David T. Felson, Alize Ferrari, Cleusa P. Ferri, Eric M. Fèvre, Mariel M. Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Louise Flood, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R. Fowkes, Richard Franklin, Marlene Fransen, Michael K. Freeman, Belinda J. Gabbe, Sherine E. Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Hammad A. Ganatra, Bianca Garcia, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F. Gillum, Gerhard Gmel, Richard Gosselin, Rebecca Grainger, Justina L. Groeger, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Ramyani Gupta, Juanita Haagsma, Holly Hagan, Yara A. Halasa, Wayne Hall, Diana Haring, Josep Maria Haro, James E. Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J. Hay, Hideki Higashi, Catherine Hill, Bruno Hoen, Howard Hoffman, Peter J. Hotez, Damian Hoy, John J. Huang, Sydney E. Ibeanusi, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Spencer L. James, Deborah Jarvis, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Jost B. Jonas, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Andre Keren, Jon Paul Khoo, Charles H. King, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Ratilal Lalloo, Laura L. Laslett, Tim Lathlean, Janet L. Leasher, Yong Yi Lee, James Leigh, Stephen S. Lim, Elizabeth Limb, John Kent Lin, Michael Lipnick, Steven E. Lipshultz, Wei Liu, Maria Loane, Summer Lockett Ohno, Ronan Lyons, Jixiang Ma, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F. MacIntyre, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Sivabalan Manivannan, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J. Margolis, Guy B. Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M. Mayosi, John H. McAnulty, Mary M. McDermott, Neil McGill, John McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Michele Meltzer, Ziad A. Memish, George A. Mensah, Tony R. Merriman, Ana Claire Meyer, Valeria Miglioli, Matthew Miller, Ted R. Miller, Philip B. Mitchell, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Ali A. Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Andrew Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Michele E. Murdoch, Michael K. Mwaniki, Kovin Naidoo, M. Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K. M.Venkat Narayan, Paul K. Nelson, Robert G. Nelson, Michael C. Nevitt, Charles R. Newton, Sandra Nolte, Paul Norman, Rosana Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Simon O'Hanlon, Casey Olives, Saad B. Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Andrew Page, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Scott B. Patten, Neil Pearce, Rogelio Perez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Michael R. Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, Sébastien Pion, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C. Arden Pope, Svetlana Popova, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Rachel L. Pullan, Kapa D. Ramaiah, Dharani Ranganathan, Homie Razavi, Mathilda Regan, Jürgen T. Rehm, David B. Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Frederick P. Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Lisa C. Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L. Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, David C. Schwebel, James Graham Scott, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Donald S. Shepard, Hwashin Shin, Rupak Shivakoti, Donald Silberberg, David Singh, Gitanjali M. Singh, Jasvinder A. Singh, Jessica Singleton, David A. Sleet, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Jennifer L. Smith, Nicolas J.C. Stapelberg, Andrew Steer, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A. Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Sana Syed, Giorgio Tamburlini, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R. Taylor, Jennifer A. Taylor, William J. Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, W. Murray Thomson, George D. Thurston, Imad M. Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Jeffrey A. Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris, Clotilde Ubeda, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Marieke J. Van Der Werf, Jim Van Os, Monica S. Vavilala, N. Venketasubramanian, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, David J. Weatherall, Martin A. Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, Marc G. Weisskopf, Myrna M. Weissman, Richard A. White, Harvey Whiteford, Steven T. Wiersma, James D. Wilkinson, Hywel C. Williams, Sean R.M. Williams, Emma Witt, Frederick Wolfe, Anthony D. Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon Hsiu Yeh, Anita K.M. Zaidi, Zhi Jie Zheng, David Zonies, Alan D. Lopez, Christopher J.L. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3660 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither eff ort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods: Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Findings: Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation: Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Eff ective and aff ordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2163-2196
Number of pages34
JournalThe Lancet
Volume380
Issue number9859
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Health
Wounds and Injuries
Mental Disorders
Uncertainty
Registries
Mortality
Global Burden of Disease
Neglected Diseases
Population
Endocrine System Diseases
Health Priorities
Premature Mortality
Iron-Deficiency Anemias
Neck Pain
Africa South of the Sahara
Information Storage and Retrieval
Population Growth
Incidence
Major Depressive Disorder
Ambulatory Care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. / Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lozano, Rafael; Michaud, Catherine; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji; Salomon, Joshua A.; Abdalla, Safa; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry; Ackerman, Ilana; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Ahn, Stephanie Y.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alvarado, Miriam; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Laurie M.; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Atkinson, Charles; Baddour, Larry M.; Bahalim, Adil N.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Barrero, Lope H.; Bartels, David H.; Basáñez, Maria Gloria; Baxter, Amanda; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, Derrick; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bhalla, Kavi; Bhandari, Bishal; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref Bin; Birbeck, Gretchen; Black, James A.; Blencowe, Hannah; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona; Bolliger, Ian; Bonaventure, Audrey; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert; Boussinesq, Michel; Braithwaite, Tasanee; Brayne, Carol; Bridgett, Lisa; Brooker, Simon; Brooks, Peter; Brugha, Traolach S.; Bryan-Hancock, Claire; Bucello, Chiara; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey; Budke, Christine M.; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter; Burstein, Roy; Calabria, Bianca; Campbell, Benjamin; Canter, Charles E.; Carabin, Hélène; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carmona, Loreto; Cella, Claudia; Charlson, Fiona; Chen, Honglei; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chou, David; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Colan, Steven D.; Colquhoun, Samantha; Colson, K. Ellicott; Condon, John; Connor, Myles D.; Cooper, Leslie T.; Corriere, Matthew; Cortinovis, Monica; De Vaccaro, Karen Courville; Couser, William; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cross, Marita; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dahiya, Manu; Dahodwala, Nabila; Damsere-Derry, James; Danaei, Goodarz; Davis, Adrian; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert; Delossantos, Allyne; Denenberg, Julie; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dolk, Helen; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim; Duber, Herbert; Ebel, Beth; Edmond, Karen; Elbaz, Alexis; Ali, Suad Eltahir; Erskine, Holly; Erwin, Patricia J.; Espindola, Patricia; Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery; Felson, David T.; Ferrari, Alize; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Fèvre, Eric M.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Flaxman, Seth; Flood, Louise; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R.; Franklin, Richard; Fransen, Marlene; Freeman, Michael K.; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganatra, Hammad A.; Garcia, Bianca; Gaspari, Flavio; Gillum, Richard F.; Gmel, Gerhard; Gosselin, Richard; Grainger, Rebecca; Groeger, Justina L.; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Ramyani; Haagsma, Juanita; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A.; Hall, Wayne; Haring, Diana; Haro, Josep Maria; Harrison, James E.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Higashi, Hideki; Hill, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Hoffman, Howard; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian; Huang, John J.; Ibeanusi, Sydney E.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; James, Spencer L.; Jarvis, Deborah; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Jayaraman, Sudha; Johns, Nicole; Jonas, Jost B.; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kawakami, Norito; Keren, Andre; Khoo, Jon Paul; King, Charles H.; Knowlton, Lisa Marie; Kobusingye, Olive; Koranteng, Adofo; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Lalloo, Ratilal; Laslett, Laura L.; Lathlean, Tim; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Yong Yi; Leigh, James; Lim, Stephen S.; Limb, Elizabeth; Lin, John Kent; Lipnick, Michael; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Wei; Loane, Maria; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Lyons, Ronan; Ma, Jixiang; Mabweijano, Jacqueline; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mallinger, Leslie; Manivannan, Sivabalan; Marcenes, Wagner; March, Lyn; Margolis, David J.; Marks, Guy B.; Marks, Robin; Matsumori, Akira; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McAnulty, John H.; McDermott, Mary M.; McGill, Neil; McGrath, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George A.; Merriman, Tony R.; Meyer, Ana Claire; Miglioli, Valeria; Miller, Matthew; Miller, Ted R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Murdoch, Michele E.; Mwaniki, Michael K.; Naidoo, Kovin; Nair, M. Nathan; Naldi, Luigi; Narayan, K. M.Venkat; Nelson, Paul K.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Newton, Charles R.; Nolte, Sandra; Norman, Paul; Norman, Rosana; O'Donnell, Martin; O'Hanlon, Simon; Olives, Casey; Omer, Saad B.; Ortblad, Katrina; Osborne, Richard; Ozgediz, Doruk; Page, Andrew; Pahari, Bishnu; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Rivero, Andrea Panozo; Patten, Scott B.; Pearce, Neil; Padilla, Rogelio Perez; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Phillips, David; Phillips, Michael R.; Pierce, Kelsey; Pion, Sébastien; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. Arden; Popova, Svetlana; Porrini, Esteban; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prince, Martin; Pullan, Rachel L.; Ramaiah, Kapa D.; Ranganathan, Dharani; Razavi, Homie; Regan, Mathilda; Rehm, Jürgen T.; Rein, David B.; Remuzzi, Guiseppe; Richardson, Kathryn; Rivara, Frederick P.; Roberts, Thomas; Robinson, Carolyn; De Leòn, Felipe Rodriguez; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Rosenfeld, Lisa C.; Rushton, Lesley; Sacco, Ralph L.; Saha, Sukanta; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sanman, Ella; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James Graham; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Shahraz, Saeid; Shepard, Donald S.; Shin, Hwashin; Shivakoti, Rupak; Silberberg, Donald; Singh, David; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singleton, Jessica; Sleet, David A.; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, Emma; Smith, Jennifer L.; Stapelberg, Nicolas J.C.; Steer, Andrew; Steiner, Timothy; Stolk, Wilma A.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Sudfeld, Christopher; Syed, Sana; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Taylor, Jennifer A.; Taylor, William J.; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, W. Murray; Thurston, George D.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K.; Ubeda, Clotilde; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Van Der Werf, Marieke J.; Van Os, Jim; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Wang, Mengru; Wang, Wenzhi; Watt, Kerrianne; Weatherall, David J.; Weinstock, Martin A.; Weintraub, Robert; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Weissman, Myrna M.; White, Richard A.; Whiteford, Harvey; Wiersma, Steven T.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Williams, Sean R.M.; Witt, Emma; Wolfe, Frederick; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wulf, Sarah; Yeh, Pon Hsiu; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Zheng, Zhi Jie; Zonies, David; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J.L.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 380, No. 9859, 01.01.2012, p. 2163-2196.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, Naghavi, M, Lozano, R, Michaud, C, Ezzati, M, Shibuya, K, Salomon, JA, Abdalla, S, Aboyans, V, Abraham, J, Ackerman, I, Aggarwal, R, Ahn, SY, Ali, MK, Almazroa, MA, Alvarado, M, Anderson, HR, Anderson, LM, Andrews, KG, Atkinson, C, Baddour, LM, Bahalim, AN, Barker-Collo, S, Barrero, LH, Bartels, DH, Basáñez, MG, Baxter, A, Bell, ML, Benjamin, EJ, Bennett, D, Bernabé, E, Bhalla, K, Bhandari, B, Bikbov, B, Abdulhak, AB, Birbeck, G, Black, JA, Blencowe, H, Blore, JD, Blyth, F, Bolliger, I, Bonaventure, A, Boufous, S, Bourne, R, Boussinesq, M, Braithwaite, T, Brayne, C, Bridgett, L, Brooker, S, Brooks, P, Brugha, TS, Bryan-Hancock, C, Bucello, C, Buchbinder, R, Buckle, G, Budke, CM, Burch, M, Burney, P, Burstein, R, Calabria, B, Campbell, B, Canter, CE, Carabin, H, Carapetis, J, Carmona, L, Cella, C, Charlson, F, Chen, H, Cheng, ATA, Chou, D, Chugh, SS, Coffeng, LE, Colan, SD, Colquhoun, S, Colson, KE, Condon, J, Connor, MD, Cooper, LT, Corriere, M, Cortinovis, M, De Vaccaro, KC, Couser, W, Cowie, BC, Criqui, MH, Cross, M, Dabhadkar, KC, Dahiya, M, Dahodwala, N, Damsere-Derry, J, Danaei, G, Davis, A, De Leo, D, Degenhardt, L, Dellavalle, R, Delossantos, A, Denenberg, J, Derrett, S, Des Jarlais, DC, Dharmaratne, SD, Dherani, M, Diaz-Torne, C, Dolk, H, Dorsey, ER, Driscoll, T, Duber, H, Ebel, B, Edmond, K, Elbaz, A, Ali, SE, Erskine, H, Erwin, PJ, Espindola, P, Ewoigbokhan, SE, Farzadfar, F, Feigin, V, Felson, DT, Ferrari, A, Ferri, CP, Fèvre, EM, Finucane, MM, Flaxman, S, Flood, L, Foreman, K, Forouzanfar, MH, Fowkes, FGR, Franklin, R, Fransen, M, Freeman, MK, Gabbe, BJ, Gabriel, SE, Gakidou, E, Ganatra, HA, Garcia, B, Gaspari, F, Gillum, RF, Gmel, G, Gosselin, R, Grainger, R, Groeger, JL, Guillemin, F, Gunnell, D, Gupta, R, Haagsma, J, Hagan, H, Halasa, YA, Hall, W, Haring, D, Haro, JM, Harrison, JE, Havmoeller, R, Hay, RJ, Higashi, H, Hill, C, Hoen, B, Hoffman, H, Hotez, PJ, Hoy, D, Huang, JJ, Ibeanusi, SE, Jacobsen, KH, James, SL, Jarvis, D, Jasrasaria, R, Jayaraman, S, Johns, N, Jonas, JB, Karthikeyan, G, Kassebaum, N, Kawakami, N, Keren, A, Khoo, JP, King, CH, Knowlton, LM, Kobusingye, O, Koranteng, A, Krishnamurthi, R, Lalloo, R, Laslett, LL, Lathlean, T, Leasher, JL, Lee, YY, Leigh, J, Lim, SS, Limb, E, Lin, JK, Lipnick, M, Lipshultz, SE, Liu, W, Loane, M, Ohno, SL, Lyons, R, Ma, J, Mabweijano, J, MacIntyre, MF, Malekzadeh, R, Mallinger, L, Manivannan, S, Marcenes, W, March, L, Margolis, DJ, Marks, GB, Marks, R, Matsumori, A, Matzopoulos, R, Mayosi, BM, McAnulty, JH, McDermott, MM, McGill, N, McGrath, J, Medina-Mora, ME, Meltzer, M, Memish, ZA, Mensah, GA, Merriman, TR, Meyer, AC, Miglioli, V, Miller, M, Miller, TR, Mitchell, PB, Mocumbi, AO, Moffitt, TE, Mokdad, AA, Monasta, L, Montico, M, Moradi-Lakeh, M, Moran, A, Morawska, L, Mori, R, Murdoch, ME, Mwaniki, MK, Naidoo, K, Nair, MN, Naldi, L, Narayan, KMV, Nelson, PK, Nelson, RG, Nevitt, MC, Newton, CR, Nolte, S, Norman, P, Norman, R, O'Donnell, M, O'Hanlon, S, Olives, C, Omer, SB, Ortblad, K, Osborne, R, Ozgediz, D, Page, A, Pahari, B, Pandian, JD, Rivero, AP, Patten, SB, Pearce, N, Padilla, RP, Perez-Ruiz, F, Perico, N, Pesudovs, K, Phillips, D, Phillips, MR, Pierce, K, Pion, S, Polanczyk, GV, Polinder, S, Pope, CA, Popova, S, Porrini, E, Pourmalek, F, Prince, M, Pullan, RL, Ramaiah, KD, Ranganathan, D, Razavi, H, Regan, M, Rehm, JT, Rein, DB, Remuzzi, G, Richardson, K, Rivara, FP, Roberts, T, Robinson, C, De Leòn, FR, Ronfani, L, Room, R, Rosenfeld, LC, Rushton, L, Sacco, RL, Saha, S, Sampson, U, Sanchez-Riera, L, Sanman, E, Schwebel, DC, Scott, JG, Segui-Gomez, M, Shahraz, S, Shepard, DS, Shin, H, Shivakoti, R, Silberberg, D, Singh, D, Singh, GM, Singh, JA, Singleton, J, Sleet, DA, Sliwa, K, Smith, E, Smith, JL, Stapelberg, NJC, Steer, A, Steiner, T, Stolk, WA, Stovner, LJ, Sudfeld, C, Syed, S, Tamburlini, G, Tavakkoli, M, Taylor, HR, Taylor, JA, Taylor, WJ, Thomas, B, Thomson, WM, Thurston, GD, Tleyjeh, IM, Tonelli, M, Towbin, JA, Truelsen, T, Tsilimbaris, MK, Ubeda, C, Undurraga, EA, Van Der Werf, MJ, Van Os, J, Vavilala, MS, Venketasubramanian, N, Wang, M, Wang, W, Watt, K, Weatherall, DJ, Weinstock, MA, Weintraub, R, Weisskopf, MG, Weissman, MM, White, RA, Whiteford, H, Wiersma, ST, Wilkinson, JD, Williams, HC, Williams, SRM, Witt, E, Wolfe, F, Woolf, AD, Wulf, S, Yeh, PH, Zaidi, AKM, Zheng, ZJ, Zonies, D, Lopez, AD & Murray, CJL 2012, 'Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010', The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9859, pp. 2163-2196. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2
Vos, Theo ; Flaxman, Abraham D. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Lozano, Rafael ; Michaud, Catherine ; Ezzati, Majid ; Shibuya, Kenji ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Abdalla, Safa ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abraham, Jerry ; Ackerman, Ilana ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Ahn, Stephanie Y. ; Ali, Mohammed K. ; Almazroa, Mohammad A. ; Alvarado, Miriam ; Anderson, H. Ross ; Anderson, Laurie M. ; Andrews, Kathryn G. ; Atkinson, Charles ; Baddour, Larry M. ; Bahalim, Adil N. ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne ; Barrero, Lope H. ; Bartels, David H. ; Basáñez, Maria Gloria ; Baxter, Amanda ; Bell, Michelle L. ; Benjamin, Emelia J. ; Bennett, Derrick ; Bernabé, Eduardo ; Bhalla, Kavi ; Bhandari, Bishal ; Bikbov, Boris ; Abdulhak, Aref Bin ; Birbeck, Gretchen ; Black, James A. ; Blencowe, Hannah ; Blore, Jed D. ; Blyth, Fiona ; Bolliger, Ian ; Bonaventure, Audrey ; Boufous, Soufiane ; Bourne, Rupert ; Boussinesq, Michel ; Braithwaite, Tasanee ; Brayne, Carol ; Bridgett, Lisa ; Brooker, Simon ; Brooks, Peter ; Brugha, Traolach S. ; Bryan-Hancock, Claire ; Bucello, Chiara ; Buchbinder, Rachelle ; Buckle, Geoffrey ; Budke, Christine M. ; Burch, Michael ; Burney, Peter ; Burstein, Roy ; Calabria, Bianca ; Campbell, Benjamin ; Canter, Charles E. ; Carabin, Hélène ; Carapetis, Jonathan ; Carmona, Loreto ; Cella, Claudia ; Charlson, Fiona ; Chen, Honglei ; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann ; Chou, David ; Chugh, Sumeet S. ; Coffeng, Luc E. ; Colan, Steven D. ; Colquhoun, Samantha ; Colson, K. Ellicott ; Condon, John ; Connor, Myles D. ; Cooper, Leslie T. ; Corriere, Matthew ; Cortinovis, Monica ; De Vaccaro, Karen Courville ; Couser, William ; Cowie, Benjamin C. ; Criqui, Michael H. ; Cross, Marita ; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C. ; Dahiya, Manu ; Dahodwala, Nabila ; Damsere-Derry, James ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Davis, Adrian ; De Leo, Diego ; Degenhardt, Louisa ; Dellavalle, Robert ; Delossantos, Allyne ; Denenberg, Julie ; Derrett, Sarah ; Des Jarlais, Don C. ; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Dherani, Mukesh ; Diaz-Torne, Cesar ; Dolk, Helen ; Dorsey, E. Ray ; Driscoll, Tim ; Duber, Herbert ; Ebel, Beth ; Edmond, Karen ; Elbaz, Alexis ; Ali, Suad Eltahir ; Erskine, Holly ; Erwin, Patricia J. ; Espindola, Patricia ; Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Feigin, Valery ; Felson, David T. ; Ferrari, Alize ; Ferri, Cleusa P. ; Fèvre, Eric M. ; Finucane, Mariel M. ; Flaxman, Seth ; Flood, Louise ; Foreman, Kyle ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H. ; Fowkes, Francis Gerry R. ; Franklin, Richard ; Fransen, Marlene ; Freeman, Michael K. ; Gabbe, Belinda J. ; Gabriel, Sherine E. ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Ganatra, Hammad A. ; Garcia, Bianca ; Gaspari, Flavio ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Gmel, Gerhard ; Gosselin, Richard ; Grainger, Rebecca ; Groeger, Justina L. ; Guillemin, Francis ; Gunnell, David ; Gupta, Ramyani ; Haagsma, Juanita ; Hagan, Holly ; Halasa, Yara A. ; Hall, Wayne ; Haring, Diana ; Haro, Josep Maria ; Harrison, James E. ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Roderick J. ; Higashi, Hideki ; Hill, Catherine ; Hoen, Bruno ; Hoffman, Howard ; Hotez, Peter J. ; Hoy, Damian ; Huang, John J. ; Ibeanusi, Sydney E. ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H. ; James, Spencer L. ; Jarvis, Deborah ; Jasrasaria, Rashmi ; Jayaraman, Sudha ; Johns, Nicole ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karthikeyan, Ganesan ; Kassebaum, Nicholas ; Kawakami, Norito ; Keren, Andre ; Khoo, Jon Paul ; King, Charles H. ; Knowlton, Lisa Marie ; Kobusingye, Olive ; Koranteng, Adofo ; Krishnamurthi, Rita ; Lalloo, Ratilal ; Laslett, Laura L. ; Lathlean, Tim ; Leasher, Janet L. ; Lee, Yong Yi ; Leigh, James ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Limb, Elizabeth ; Lin, John Kent ; Lipnick, Michael ; Lipshultz, Steven E. ; Liu, Wei ; Loane, Maria ; Ohno, Summer Lockett ; Lyons, Ronan ; Ma, Jixiang ; Mabweijano, Jacqueline ; MacIntyre, Michael F. ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mallinger, Leslie ; Manivannan, Sivabalan ; Marcenes, Wagner ; March, Lyn ; Margolis, David J. ; Marks, Guy B. ; Marks, Robin ; Matsumori, Akira ; Matzopoulos, Richard ; Mayosi, Bongani M. ; McAnulty, John H. ; McDermott, Mary M. ; McGill, Neil ; McGrath, John ; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena ; Meltzer, Michele ; Memish, Ziad A. ; Mensah, George A. ; Merriman, Tony R. ; Meyer, Ana Claire ; Miglioli, Valeria ; Miller, Matthew ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mitchell, Philip B. ; Mocumbi, Ana Olga ; Moffitt, Terrie E. ; Mokdad, Ali A. ; Monasta, Lorenzo ; Montico, Marcella ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Moran, Andrew ; Morawska, Lidia ; Mori, Rintaro ; Murdoch, Michele E. ; Mwaniki, Michael K. ; Naidoo, Kovin ; Nair, M. Nathan ; Naldi, Luigi ; Narayan, K. M.Venkat ; Nelson, Paul K. ; Nelson, Robert G. ; Nevitt, Michael C. ; Newton, Charles R. ; Nolte, Sandra ; Norman, Paul ; Norman, Rosana ; O'Donnell, Martin ; O'Hanlon, Simon ; Olives, Casey ; Omer, Saad B. ; Ortblad, Katrina ; Osborne, Richard ; Ozgediz, Doruk ; Page, Andrew ; Pahari, Bishnu ; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai ; Rivero, Andrea Panozo ; Patten, Scott B. ; Pearce, Neil ; Padilla, Rogelio Perez ; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando ; Perico, Norberto ; Pesudovs, Konrad ; Phillips, David ; Phillips, Michael R. ; Pierce, Kelsey ; Pion, Sébastien ; Polanczyk, Guilherme V. ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Pope, C. Arden ; Popova, Svetlana ; Porrini, Esteban ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Prince, Martin ; Pullan, Rachel L. ; Ramaiah, Kapa D. ; Ranganathan, Dharani ; Razavi, Homie ; Regan, Mathilda ; Rehm, Jürgen T. ; Rein, David B. ; Remuzzi, Guiseppe ; Richardson, Kathryn ; Rivara, Frederick P. ; Roberts, Thomas ; Robinson, Carolyn ; De Leòn, Felipe Rodriguez ; Ronfani, Luca ; Room, Robin ; Rosenfeld, Lisa C. ; Rushton, Lesley ; Sacco, Ralph L. ; Saha, Sukanta ; Sampson, Uchechukwu ; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia ; Sanman, Ella ; Schwebel, David C. ; Scott, James Graham ; Segui-Gomez, Maria ; Shahraz, Saeid ; Shepard, Donald S. ; Shin, Hwashin ; Shivakoti, Rupak ; Silberberg, Donald ; Singh, David ; Singh, Gitanjali M. ; Singh, Jasvinder A. ; Singleton, Jessica ; Sleet, David A. ; Sliwa, Karen ; Smith, Emma ; Smith, Jennifer L. ; Stapelberg, Nicolas J.C. ; Steer, Andrew ; Steiner, Timothy ; Stolk, Wilma A. ; Stovner, Lars Jacob ; Sudfeld, Christopher ; Syed, Sana ; Tamburlini, Giorgio ; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Taylor, Hugh R. ; Taylor, Jennifer A. ; Taylor, William J. ; Thomas, Bernadette ; Thomson, W. Murray ; Thurston, George D. ; Tleyjeh, Imad M. ; Tonelli, Marcello ; Towbin, Jeffrey A. ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K. ; Ubeda, Clotilde ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Van Der Werf, Marieke J. ; Van Os, Jim ; Vavilala, Monica S. ; Venketasubramanian, N. ; Wang, Mengru ; Wang, Wenzhi ; Watt, Kerrianne ; Weatherall, David J. ; Weinstock, Martin A. ; Weintraub, Robert ; Weisskopf, Marc G. ; Weissman, Myrna M. ; White, Richard A. ; Whiteford, Harvey ; Wiersma, Steven T. ; Wilkinson, James D. ; Williams, Hywel C. ; Williams, Sean R.M. ; Witt, Emma ; Wolfe, Frederick ; Woolf, Anthony D. ; Wulf, Sarah ; Yeh, Pon Hsiu ; Zaidi, Anita K.M. ; Zheng, Zhi Jie ; Zonies, David ; Lopez, Alan D. ; Murray, Christopher J.L. / Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. In: The Lancet. 2012 ; Vol. 380, No. 9859. pp. 2163-2196.
@article{cf7d4906e0b74e478c7dc5a4f276de92,
title = "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010",
abstract = "Background: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither eff ort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods: Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Findings: Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation: Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Eff ective and aff ordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.",
author = "Theo Vos and Flaxman, {Abraham D.} and Mohsen Naghavi and Rafael Lozano and Catherine Michaud and Majid Ezzati and Kenji Shibuya and Salomon, {Joshua A.} and Safa Abdalla and Victor Aboyans and Jerry Abraham and Ilana Ackerman and Rakesh Aggarwal and Ahn, {Stephanie Y.} and Ali, {Mohammed K.} and Almazroa, {Mohammad A.} and Miriam Alvarado and Anderson, {H. Ross} and Anderson, {Laurie M.} and Andrews, {Kathryn G.} and Charles Atkinson and Baddour, {Larry M.} and Bahalim, {Adil N.} and Suzanne Barker-Collo and Barrero, {Lope H.} and Bartels, {David H.} and Bas{\'a}{\~n}ez, {Maria Gloria} and Amanda Baxter and Bell, {Michelle L.} and Benjamin, {Emelia J.} and Derrick Bennett and Eduardo Bernab{\'e} and Kavi Bhalla and Bishal Bhandari and Boris Bikbov and Abdulhak, {Aref Bin} and Gretchen Birbeck and Black, {James A.} and Hannah Blencowe and Blore, {Jed D.} and Fiona Blyth and Ian Bolliger and Audrey Bonaventure and Soufiane Boufous and Rupert Bourne and Michel Boussinesq and Tasanee Braithwaite and Carol Brayne and Lisa Bridgett and Simon Brooker and Peter Brooks and Brugha, {Traolach S.} and Claire Bryan-Hancock and Chiara Bucello and Rachelle Buchbinder and Geoffrey Buckle and Budke, {Christine M.} and Michael Burch and Peter Burney and Roy Burstein and Bianca Calabria and Benjamin Campbell and Canter, {Charles E.} and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Carabin and Jonathan Carapetis and Loreto Carmona and Claudia Cella and Fiona Charlson and Honglei Chen and Cheng, {Andrew Tai Ann} and David Chou and Chugh, {Sumeet S.} and Coffeng, {Luc E.} and Colan, {Steven D.} and Samantha Colquhoun and Colson, {K. Ellicott} and John Condon and Connor, {Myles D.} and Cooper, {Leslie T.} and Matthew Corriere and Monica Cortinovis and {De Vaccaro}, {Karen Courville} and William Couser and Cowie, {Benjamin C.} and Criqui, {Michael H.} and Marita Cross and Dabhadkar, {Kaustubh C.} and Manu Dahiya and Nabila Dahodwala and James Damsere-Derry and Goodarz Danaei and Adrian Davis and {De Leo}, Diego and Louisa Degenhardt and Robert Dellavalle and Allyne Delossantos and Julie Denenberg and Sarah Derrett and {Des Jarlais}, {Don C.} and Dharmaratne, {Samath D.} and Mukesh Dherani and Cesar Diaz-Torne and Helen Dolk and Dorsey, {E. Ray} and Tim Driscoll and Herbert Duber and Beth Ebel and Karen Edmond and Alexis Elbaz and Ali, {Suad Eltahir} and Holly Erskine and Erwin, {Patricia J.} and Patricia Espindola and Ewoigbokhan, {Stalin E.} and Farshad Farzadfar and Valery Feigin and Felson, {David T.} and Alize Ferrari and Ferri, {Cleusa P.} and F{\`e}vre, {Eric M.} and Finucane, {Mariel M.} and Seth Flaxman and Louise Flood and Kyle Foreman and Forouzanfar, {Mohammad H.} and Fowkes, {Francis Gerry R.} and Richard Franklin and Marlene Fransen and Freeman, {Michael K.} and Gabbe, {Belinda J.} and Gabriel, {Sherine E.} and Emmanuela Gakidou and Ganatra, {Hammad A.} and Bianca Garcia and Flavio Gaspari and Gillum, {Richard F.} and Gerhard Gmel and Richard Gosselin and Rebecca Grainger and Groeger, {Justina L.} and Francis Guillemin and David Gunnell and Ramyani Gupta and Juanita Haagsma and Holly Hagan and Halasa, {Yara A.} and Wayne Hall and Diana Haring and Haro, {Josep Maria} and Harrison, {James E.} and Rasmus Havmoeller and Hay, {Roderick J.} and Hideki Higashi and Catherine Hill and Bruno Hoen and Howard Hoffman and Hotez, {Peter J.} and Damian Hoy and Huang, {John J.} and Ibeanusi, {Sydney E.} and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and James, {Spencer L.} and Deborah Jarvis and Rashmi Jasrasaria and Sudha Jayaraman and Nicole Johns and Jonas, {Jost B.} and Ganesan Karthikeyan and Nicholas Kassebaum and Norito Kawakami and Andre Keren and Khoo, {Jon Paul} and King, {Charles H.} and Knowlton, {Lisa Marie} and Olive Kobusingye and Adofo Koranteng and Rita Krishnamurthi and Ratilal Lalloo and Laslett, {Laura L.} and Tim Lathlean and Leasher, {Janet L.} and Lee, {Yong Yi} and James Leigh and Lim, {Stephen S.} and Elizabeth Limb and Lin, {John Kent} and Michael Lipnick and Lipshultz, {Steven E.} and Wei Liu and Maria Loane and Ohno, {Summer Lockett} and Ronan Lyons and Jixiang Ma and Jacqueline Mabweijano and MacIntyre, {Michael F.} and Reza Malekzadeh and Leslie Mallinger and Sivabalan Manivannan and Wagner Marcenes and Lyn March and Margolis, {David J.} and Marks, {Guy B.} and Robin Marks and Akira Matsumori and Richard Matzopoulos and Mayosi, {Bongani M.} and McAnulty, {John H.} and McDermott, {Mary M.} and Neil McGill and John McGrath and Medina-Mora, {Maria Elena} and Michele Meltzer and Memish, {Ziad A.} and Mensah, {George A.} and Merriman, {Tony R.} and Meyer, {Ana Claire} and Valeria Miglioli and Matthew Miller and Miller, {Ted R.} and Mitchell, {Philip B.} and Mocumbi, {Ana Olga} and Moffitt, {Terrie E.} and Mokdad, {Ali A.} and Lorenzo Monasta and Marcella Montico and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Andrew Moran and Lidia Morawska and Rintaro Mori and Murdoch, {Michele E.} and Mwaniki, {Michael K.} and Kovin Naidoo and Nair, {M. Nathan} and Luigi Naldi and Narayan, {K. M.Venkat} and Nelson, {Paul K.} and Nelson, {Robert G.} and Nevitt, {Michael C.} and Newton, {Charles R.} and Sandra Nolte and Paul Norman and Rosana Norman and Martin O'Donnell and Simon O'Hanlon and Casey Olives and Omer, {Saad B.} and Katrina Ortblad and Richard Osborne and Doruk Ozgediz and Andrew Page and Bishnu Pahari and Pandian, {Jeyaraj Durai} and Rivero, {Andrea Panozo} and Patten, {Scott B.} and Neil Pearce and Padilla, {Rogelio Perez} and Fernando Perez-Ruiz and Norberto Perico and Konrad Pesudovs and David Phillips and Phillips, {Michael R.} and Kelsey Pierce and S{\'e}bastien Pion and Polanczyk, {Guilherme V.} and Suzanne Polinder and Pope, {C. Arden} and Svetlana Popova and Esteban Porrini and Farshad Pourmalek and Martin Prince and Pullan, {Rachel L.} and Ramaiah, {Kapa D.} and Dharani Ranganathan and Homie Razavi and Mathilda Regan and Rehm, {J{\"u}rgen T.} and Rein, {David B.} and Guiseppe Remuzzi and Kathryn Richardson and Rivara, {Frederick P.} and Thomas Roberts and Carolyn Robinson and {De Le{\`o}n}, {Felipe Rodriguez} and Luca Ronfani and Robin Room and Rosenfeld, {Lisa C.} and Lesley Rushton and Sacco, {Ralph L.} and Sukanta Saha and Uchechukwu Sampson and Lidia Sanchez-Riera and Ella Sanman and Schwebel, {David C.} and Scott, {James Graham} and Maria Segui-Gomez and Saeid Shahraz and Shepard, {Donald S.} and Hwashin Shin and Rupak Shivakoti and Donald Silberberg and David Singh and Singh, {Gitanjali M.} and Singh, {Jasvinder A.} and Jessica Singleton and Sleet, {David A.} and Karen Sliwa and Emma Smith and Smith, {Jennifer L.} and Stapelberg, {Nicolas J.C.} and Andrew Steer and Timothy Steiner and Stolk, {Wilma A.} and Stovner, {Lars Jacob} and Christopher Sudfeld and Sana Syed and Giorgio Tamburlini and Mohammad Tavakkoli and Taylor, {Hugh R.} and Taylor, {Jennifer A.} and Taylor, {William J.} and Bernadette Thomas and Thomson, {W. Murray} and Thurston, {George D.} and Tleyjeh, {Imad M.} and Marcello Tonelli and Towbin, {Jeffrey A.} and Thomas Truelsen and Tsilimbaris, {Miltiadis K.} and Clotilde Ubeda and Undurraga, {Eduardo A.} and {Van Der Werf}, {Marieke J.} and {Van Os}, Jim and Vavilala, {Monica S.} and N. Venketasubramanian and Mengru Wang and Wenzhi Wang and Kerrianne Watt and Weatherall, {David J.} and Weinstock, {Martin A.} and Robert Weintraub and Weisskopf, {Marc G.} and Weissman, {Myrna M.} and White, {Richard A.} and Harvey Whiteford and Wiersma, {Steven T.} and Wilkinson, {James D.} and Williams, {Hywel C.} and Williams, {Sean R.M.} and Emma Witt and Frederick Wolfe and Woolf, {Anthony D.} and Sarah Wulf and Yeh, {Pon Hsiu} and Zaidi, {Anita K.M.} and Zheng, {Zhi Jie} and David Zonies and Lopez, {Alan D.} and Murray, {Christopher J.L.}",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "380",
pages = "2163--2196",
journal = "The Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "9859",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010

T2 - A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Flaxman, Abraham D.

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Lozano, Rafael

AU - Michaud, Catherine

AU - Ezzati, Majid

AU - Shibuya, Kenji

AU - Salomon, Joshua A.

AU - Abdalla, Safa

AU - Aboyans, Victor

AU - Abraham, Jerry

AU - Ackerman, Ilana

AU - Aggarwal, Rakesh

AU - Ahn, Stephanie Y.

AU - Ali, Mohammed K.

AU - Almazroa, Mohammad A.

AU - Alvarado, Miriam

AU - Anderson, H. Ross

AU - Anderson, Laurie M.

AU - Andrews, Kathryn G.

AU - Atkinson, Charles

AU - Baddour, Larry M.

AU - Bahalim, Adil N.

AU - Barker-Collo, Suzanne

AU - Barrero, Lope H.

AU - Bartels, David H.

AU - Basáñez, Maria Gloria

AU - Baxter, Amanda

AU - Bell, Michelle L.

AU - Benjamin, Emelia J.

AU - Bennett, Derrick

AU - Bernabé, Eduardo

AU - Bhalla, Kavi

AU - Bhandari, Bishal

AU - Bikbov, Boris

AU - Abdulhak, Aref Bin

AU - Birbeck, Gretchen

AU - Black, James A.

AU - Blencowe, Hannah

AU - Blore, Jed D.

AU - Blyth, Fiona

AU - Bolliger, Ian

AU - Bonaventure, Audrey

AU - Boufous, Soufiane

AU - Bourne, Rupert

AU - Boussinesq, Michel

AU - Braithwaite, Tasanee

AU - Brayne, Carol

AU - Bridgett, Lisa

AU - Brooker, Simon

AU - Brooks, Peter

AU - Brugha, Traolach S.

AU - Bryan-Hancock, Claire

AU - Bucello, Chiara

AU - Buchbinder, Rachelle

AU - Buckle, Geoffrey

AU - Budke, Christine M.

AU - Burch, Michael

AU - Burney, Peter

AU - Burstein, Roy

AU - Calabria, Bianca

AU - Campbell, Benjamin

AU - Canter, Charles E.

AU - Carabin, Hélène

AU - Carapetis, Jonathan

AU - Carmona, Loreto

AU - Cella, Claudia

AU - Charlson, Fiona

AU - Chen, Honglei

AU - Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann

AU - Chou, David

AU - Chugh, Sumeet S.

AU - Coffeng, Luc E.

AU - Colan, Steven D.

AU - Colquhoun, Samantha

AU - Colson, K. Ellicott

AU - Condon, John

AU - Connor, Myles D.

AU - Cooper, Leslie T.

AU - Corriere, Matthew

AU - Cortinovis, Monica

AU - De Vaccaro, Karen Courville

AU - Couser, William

AU - Cowie, Benjamin C.

AU - Criqui, Michael H.

AU - Cross, Marita

AU - Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.

AU - Dahiya, Manu

AU - Dahodwala, Nabila

AU - Damsere-Derry, James

AU - Danaei, Goodarz

AU - Davis, Adrian

AU - De Leo, Diego

AU - Degenhardt, Louisa

AU - Dellavalle, Robert

AU - Delossantos, Allyne

AU - Denenberg, Julie

AU - Derrett, Sarah

AU - Des Jarlais, Don C.

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath D.

AU - Dherani, Mukesh

AU - Diaz-Torne, Cesar

AU - Dolk, Helen

AU - Dorsey, E. Ray

AU - Driscoll, Tim

AU - Duber, Herbert

AU - Ebel, Beth

AU - Edmond, Karen

AU - Elbaz, Alexis

AU - Ali, Suad Eltahir

AU - Erskine, Holly

AU - Erwin, Patricia J.

AU - Espindola, Patricia

AU - Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E.

AU - Farzadfar, Farshad

AU - Feigin, Valery

AU - Felson, David T.

AU - Ferrari, Alize

AU - Ferri, Cleusa P.

AU - Fèvre, Eric M.

AU - Finucane, Mariel M.

AU - Flaxman, Seth

AU - Flood, Louise

AU - Foreman, Kyle

AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

AU - Fowkes, Francis Gerry R.

AU - Franklin, Richard

AU - Fransen, Marlene

AU - Freeman, Michael K.

AU - Gabbe, Belinda J.

AU - Gabriel, Sherine E.

AU - Gakidou, Emmanuela

AU - Ganatra, Hammad A.

AU - Garcia, Bianca

AU - Gaspari, Flavio

AU - Gillum, Richard F.

AU - Gmel, Gerhard

AU - Gosselin, Richard

AU - Grainger, Rebecca

AU - Groeger, Justina L.

AU - Guillemin, Francis

AU - Gunnell, David

AU - Gupta, Ramyani

AU - Haagsma, Juanita

AU - Hagan, Holly

AU - Halasa, Yara A.

AU - Hall, Wayne

AU - Haring, Diana

AU - Haro, Josep Maria

AU - Harrison, James E.

AU - Havmoeller, Rasmus

AU - Hay, Roderick J.

AU - Higashi, Hideki

AU - Hill, Catherine

AU - Hoen, Bruno

AU - Hoffman, Howard

AU - Hotez, Peter J.

AU - Hoy, Damian

AU - Huang, John J.

AU - Ibeanusi, Sydney E.

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

AU - James, Spencer L.

AU - Jarvis, Deborah

AU - Jasrasaria, Rashmi

AU - Jayaraman, Sudha

AU - Johns, Nicole

AU - Jonas, Jost B.

AU - Karthikeyan, Ganesan

AU - Kassebaum, Nicholas

AU - Kawakami, Norito

AU - Keren, Andre

AU - Khoo, Jon Paul

AU - King, Charles H.

AU - Knowlton, Lisa Marie

AU - Kobusingye, Olive

AU - Koranteng, Adofo

AU - Krishnamurthi, Rita

AU - Lalloo, Ratilal

AU - Laslett, Laura L.

AU - Lathlean, Tim

AU - Leasher, Janet L.

AU - Lee, Yong Yi

AU - Leigh, James

AU - Lim, Stephen S.

AU - Limb, Elizabeth

AU - Lin, John Kent

AU - Lipnick, Michael

AU - Lipshultz, Steven E.

AU - Liu, Wei

AU - Loane, Maria

AU - Ohno, Summer Lockett

AU - Lyons, Ronan

AU - Ma, Jixiang

AU - Mabweijano, Jacqueline

AU - MacIntyre, Michael F.

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Mallinger, Leslie

AU - Manivannan, Sivabalan

AU - Marcenes, Wagner

AU - March, Lyn

AU - Margolis, David J.

AU - Marks, Guy B.

AU - Marks, Robin

AU - Matsumori, Akira

AU - Matzopoulos, Richard

AU - Mayosi, Bongani M.

AU - McAnulty, John H.

AU - McDermott, Mary M.

AU - McGill, Neil

AU - McGrath, John

AU - Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

AU - Meltzer, Michele

AU - Memish, Ziad A.

AU - Mensah, George A.

AU - Merriman, Tony R.

AU - Meyer, Ana Claire

AU - Miglioli, Valeria

AU - Miller, Matthew

AU - Miller, Ted R.

AU - Mitchell, Philip B.

AU - Mocumbi, Ana Olga

AU - Moffitt, Terrie E.

AU - Mokdad, Ali A.

AU - Monasta, Lorenzo

AU - Montico, Marcella

AU - Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

AU - Moran, Andrew

AU - Morawska, Lidia

AU - Mori, Rintaro

AU - Murdoch, Michele E.

AU - Mwaniki, Michael K.

AU - Naidoo, Kovin

AU - Nair, M. Nathan

AU - Naldi, Luigi

AU - Narayan, K. M.Venkat

AU - Nelson, Paul K.

AU - Nelson, Robert G.

AU - Nevitt, Michael C.

AU - Newton, Charles R.

AU - Nolte, Sandra

AU - Norman, Paul

AU - Norman, Rosana

AU - O'Donnell, Martin

AU - O'Hanlon, Simon

AU - Olives, Casey

AU - Omer, Saad B.

AU - Ortblad, Katrina

AU - Osborne, Richard

AU - Ozgediz, Doruk

AU - Page, Andrew

AU - Pahari, Bishnu

AU - Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

AU - Rivero, Andrea Panozo

AU - Patten, Scott B.

AU - Pearce, Neil

AU - Padilla, Rogelio Perez

AU - Perez-Ruiz, Fernando

AU - Perico, Norberto

AU - Pesudovs, Konrad

AU - Phillips, David

AU - Phillips, Michael R.

AU - Pierce, Kelsey

AU - Pion, Sébastien

AU - Polanczyk, Guilherme V.

AU - Polinder, Suzanne

AU - Pope, C. Arden

AU - Popova, Svetlana

AU - Porrini, Esteban

AU - Pourmalek, Farshad

AU - Prince, Martin

AU - Pullan, Rachel L.

AU - Ramaiah, Kapa D.

AU - Ranganathan, Dharani

AU - Razavi, Homie

AU - Regan, Mathilda

AU - Rehm, Jürgen T.

AU - Rein, David B.

AU - Remuzzi, Guiseppe

AU - Richardson, Kathryn

AU - Rivara, Frederick P.

AU - Roberts, Thomas

AU - Robinson, Carolyn

AU - De Leòn, Felipe Rodriguez

AU - Ronfani, Luca

AU - Room, Robin

AU - Rosenfeld, Lisa C.

AU - Rushton, Lesley

AU - Sacco, Ralph L.

AU - Saha, Sukanta

AU - Sampson, Uchechukwu

AU - Sanchez-Riera, Lidia

AU - Sanman, Ella

AU - Schwebel, David C.

AU - Scott, James Graham

AU - Segui-Gomez, Maria

AU - Shahraz, Saeid

AU - Shepard, Donald S.

AU - Shin, Hwashin

AU - Shivakoti, Rupak

AU - Silberberg, Donald

AU - Singh, David

AU - Singh, Gitanjali M.

AU - Singh, Jasvinder A.

AU - Singleton, Jessica

AU - Sleet, David A.

AU - Sliwa, Karen

AU - Smith, Emma

AU - Smith, Jennifer L.

AU - Stapelberg, Nicolas J.C.

AU - Steer, Andrew

AU - Steiner, Timothy

AU - Stolk, Wilma A.

AU - Stovner, Lars Jacob

AU - Sudfeld, Christopher

AU - Syed, Sana

AU - Tamburlini, Giorgio

AU - Tavakkoli, Mohammad

AU - Taylor, Hugh R.

AU - Taylor, Jennifer A.

AU - Taylor, William J.

AU - Thomas, Bernadette

AU - Thomson, W. Murray

AU - Thurston, George D.

AU - Tleyjeh, Imad M.

AU - Tonelli, Marcello

AU - Towbin, Jeffrey A.

AU - Truelsen, Thomas

AU - Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K.

AU - Ubeda, Clotilde

AU - Undurraga, Eduardo A.

AU - Van Der Werf, Marieke J.

AU - Van Os, Jim

AU - Vavilala, Monica S.

AU - Venketasubramanian, N.

AU - Wang, Mengru

AU - Wang, Wenzhi

AU - Watt, Kerrianne

AU - Weatherall, David J.

AU - Weinstock, Martin A.

AU - Weintraub, Robert

AU - Weisskopf, Marc G.

AU - Weissman, Myrna M.

AU - White, Richard A.

AU - Whiteford, Harvey

AU - Wiersma, Steven T.

AU - Wilkinson, James D.

AU - Williams, Hywel C.

AU - Williams, Sean R.M.

AU - Witt, Emma

AU - Wolfe, Frederick

AU - Woolf, Anthony D.

AU - Wulf, Sarah

AU - Yeh, Pon Hsiu

AU - Zaidi, Anita K.M.

AU - Zheng, Zhi Jie

AU - Zonies, David

AU - Lopez, Alan D.

AU - Murray, Christopher J.L.

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - Background: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither eff ort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods: Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Findings: Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation: Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Eff ective and aff ordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.

AB - Background: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither eff ort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods: Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Findings: Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation: Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Eff ective and aff ordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84871051576&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84871051576&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2

M3 - Article

VL - 380

SP - 2163

EP - 2196

JO - The Lancet

JF - The Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 9859

ER -