Wisconsin Card Sorting Task-64 performance among HIV+ Black/African American and Latinx adults compared to normative samples and by sociocultural and health variables

Lisa N. Cruz, Andrea H. Weinberger, Jonathan Shuter, Christine J. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Many people living with HIV experience cognitive impairment, and HIV disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Independent of HIV, racial/ethnic minority individuals perform worse than White individuals on cognitive tasks, even after accounting for education. Our goals were to (1) compare WCST-64 scores between HIV+ Black/African American (Black/AA) (n = 45) and Latinx (n = 41) urban-dwelling adults; (2) compare our total sample to the WCST-64 manual’s normative (N) and clinical normative (CN) groups; and (3) explore relationships between WCST-64 performance and sociocultural/health variables. In our sample, employment (12%), mean annual income (<$10,000), and mean education (<12 years) were low, while mean medication adherence rates were high for both Black/AA (90%) and Latinx (87%). WCST-64 scores were similar between groups (p >.05). Percentages of “below average” and “mildly impaired” scores in our sample were higher than the N group, and similar to the CN group. Lifetime heroin use, dementia, and longer HIV illness duration were significantly associated with worse WCST-64 performance (ps <.05). The observed low scores in our asymptomatic sample are likely due to the intersectionality of sociocultural and medical burden, highlighting complexities in interpreting neuropsychological data in real-world HIV+ clinics. Executive deficits are linked to poorer outcomes, and routine cognitive screening may be clinically indicated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalApplied Neuropsychology:Adult
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Cultural neuropsychology
  • HIV
  • executive functioning
  • neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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