Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculitis and Adult Cerebrovascular Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The role of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in neurological illness, particularly cerebrovascular disease, has been increasingly recognized. Primary infection by VZV causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus remains latent in neuronal ganglia. Later, during aging or immunosuppression, the virus can reactivate causing zoster (shingles). Virus reactivation can also spread to cerebral arteries causing vasculitis and stroke. Zoster is a recognized risk factor for stroke, but stroke can occur without preceding zoster rash. The diagnosis of VZV cerebral vasculitis is established by abnormal brain imaging and confirmed by presence of viral DNA or anti-VZV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with acyclovir with or without prednisone is usually recommended. VZV vasculitis is a unique and uncommon stroke mechanism that has been under recognized. Careful diagnostic investigation may be warranted in a subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke to detect VZV vasculitis and initiate appropriate therapy. In the following review, we detail the clinical presentation of VZV vasculitis, diagnostic challenges in VZV detection, and suggest the ways to enhance recognition and treatment of this uncommon disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNeurohospitalist
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Cerebrovascular Disorders
Human Herpesvirus 3
Vasculitis
Herpes Zoster
Stroke
Chickenpox
Viruses
Central Nervous System Vasculitis
Cerebral Arteries
Acyclovir
Viral DNA
Prednisone
Exanthema
Neuroimaging
Ganglia
Immunosuppression
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Therapeutics
Antibodies

Keywords

  • central nervous system
  • ischemic stroke
  • Varicella zoster virus
  • vasculitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

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title = "Varicella Zoster Virus Vasculitis and Adult Cerebrovascular Disease",
abstract = "The role of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in neurological illness, particularly cerebrovascular disease, has been increasingly recognized. Primary infection by VZV causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus remains latent in neuronal ganglia. Later, during aging or immunosuppression, the virus can reactivate causing zoster (shingles). Virus reactivation can also spread to cerebral arteries causing vasculitis and stroke. Zoster is a recognized risk factor for stroke, but stroke can occur without preceding zoster rash. The diagnosis of VZV cerebral vasculitis is established by abnormal brain imaging and confirmed by presence of viral DNA or anti-VZV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with acyclovir with or without prednisone is usually recommended. VZV vasculitis is a unique and uncommon stroke mechanism that has been under recognized. Careful diagnostic investigation may be warranted in a subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke to detect VZV vasculitis and initiate appropriate therapy. In the following review, we detail the clinical presentation of VZV vasculitis, diagnostic challenges in VZV detection, and suggest the ways to enhance recognition and treatment of this uncommon disease.",
keywords = "central nervous system, ischemic stroke, Varicella zoster virus, vasculitis",
author = "Ekaterina Bakradze and Kirchoff, {Kathryn F.} and Daniel Antoniello and Springer, {Mellanie V.} and Mabie, {Peter C.} and Esenwa, {Charles C.} and Labovitz, {Daniel L.} and Liberman, {Ava L.}",
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AU - Bakradze, Ekaterina

AU - Kirchoff, Kathryn F.

AU - Antoniello, Daniel

AU - Springer, Mellanie V.

AU - Mabie, Peter C.

AU - Esenwa, Charles C.

AU - Labovitz, Daniel L.

AU - Liberman, Ava L.

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N2 - The role of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in neurological illness, particularly cerebrovascular disease, has been increasingly recognized. Primary infection by VZV causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus remains latent in neuronal ganglia. Later, during aging or immunosuppression, the virus can reactivate causing zoster (shingles). Virus reactivation can also spread to cerebral arteries causing vasculitis and stroke. Zoster is a recognized risk factor for stroke, but stroke can occur without preceding zoster rash. The diagnosis of VZV cerebral vasculitis is established by abnormal brain imaging and confirmed by presence of viral DNA or anti-VZV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with acyclovir with or without prednisone is usually recommended. VZV vasculitis is a unique and uncommon stroke mechanism that has been under recognized. Careful diagnostic investigation may be warranted in a subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke to detect VZV vasculitis and initiate appropriate therapy. In the following review, we detail the clinical presentation of VZV vasculitis, diagnostic challenges in VZV detection, and suggest the ways to enhance recognition and treatment of this uncommon disease.

AB - The role of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in neurological illness, particularly cerebrovascular disease, has been increasingly recognized. Primary infection by VZV causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus remains latent in neuronal ganglia. Later, during aging or immunosuppression, the virus can reactivate causing zoster (shingles). Virus reactivation can also spread to cerebral arteries causing vasculitis and stroke. Zoster is a recognized risk factor for stroke, but stroke can occur without preceding zoster rash. The diagnosis of VZV cerebral vasculitis is established by abnormal brain imaging and confirmed by presence of viral DNA or anti-VZV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment with acyclovir with or without prednisone is usually recommended. VZV vasculitis is a unique and uncommon stroke mechanism that has been under recognized. Careful diagnostic investigation may be warranted in a subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke to detect VZV vasculitis and initiate appropriate therapy. In the following review, we detail the clinical presentation of VZV vasculitis, diagnostic challenges in VZV detection, and suggest the ways to enhance recognition and treatment of this uncommon disease.

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