Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5

Peter R. Baker, Marisa W. Friederich, Michael A. Swanson, Tamim Shaikh, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Gunter H. Scharer, Joseph Aicher, Geralyn Creadon-Swindell, Elizabeth Geiger, Kenneth N. Maclean, Wang Tso Lee, Charu Deshpande, Mary Louise Freckmann, Ling Yu Shih, Melissa P. Wasserstein, Malene B. Rasmussen, Allan M. Lund, Peter Procopis, Jessie M. Cameron, Brian H. RobinsonGarry K. Brown, Ruth M. Brown, Alison G. Compton, Carol L. Dieckmann, Renata Collard, Curtis R. Coughlin, Elaine Spector, Michael F. Wempe, Johan L K Van Hove

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

91 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity, but without mutations in AMT, GLDC or GCSH, the genes encoding its constituent proteins, constitute a clinical group which we call 'variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia'. We hypothesize that in some patients the aetiology involves genetic mutations that result in a deficiency of the cofactor lipoate, and sequenced genes involved in lipoate synthesis and iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis. Of 11 individuals identified with variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia, we were able to determine the genetic aetiology in eight patients and delineate the clinical and biochemical phenotypes. Mutations were identified in the genes for lipoate synthase (LIAS), BolA type 3 (BOLA3), and a novel gene glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5). Patients with GLRX5-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia had normal development with childhood-onset spastic paraplegia, spinal lesion, and optic atrophy. Clinical features of BOLA3-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia include severe neurodegeneration after a period of normal development. Additional features include leukodystrophy, cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Patients with lipoate synthase-deficient variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia varied in severity from mild static encephalopathy to Leigh disease and cortical involvement. All patients had high serum and borderline elevated cerebrospinal fluid glycine and cerebrospinal fluid:plasma glycine ratio, and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity. They had low pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity but most did not have lactic acidosis. Patients were deficient in lipoylation of mitochondrial proteins. There were minimal and inconsistent changes in cellular iron handling, and respiratory chain activity was unaffected. Identified mutations were phylogenetically conserved, and transfection with native genes corrected the biochemical deficiency proving pathogenicity. Treatments of cells with lipoate and with mitochondrially-targeted lipoate were unsuccessful at correcting the deficiency. The recognition of variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia is important for physicians evaluating patients with abnormalities in glycine as this will affect the genetic causation and genetic counselling, and provide prognostic information on the expected phenotypic course.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-379
Number of pages14
JournalBrain
Volume137
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia
Glutaredoxins
Mutation
Glycine
Genes
Optic Atrophy
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Enzymes
Iron
Leigh Disease
Lipoylation
Lactic Acidosis
Gene
Paraplegia
Mitochondrial Proteins
Genetic Counseling
Brain Diseases
Electron Transport
Pyruvic Acid
Cardiomyopathies

Keywords

  • iron-sulphur cluster
  • leukodystrophy
  • lipoic acid
  • nonketotic hyperglycinemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Baker, P. R., Friederich, M. W., Swanson, M. A., Shaikh, T., Bhattacharya, K., Scharer, G. H., ... Van Hove, J. L. K. (2014). Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5. Brain, 137(2), 366-379. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt328

Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5. / Baker, Peter R.; Friederich, Marisa W.; Swanson, Michael A.; Shaikh, Tamim; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv; Scharer, Gunter H.; Aicher, Joseph; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn; Geiger, Elizabeth; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Lee, Wang Tso; Deshpande, Charu; Freckmann, Mary Louise; Shih, Ling Yu; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Rasmussen, Malene B.; Lund, Allan M.; Procopis, Peter; Cameron, Jessie M.; Robinson, Brian H.; Brown, Garry K.; Brown, Ruth M.; Compton, Alison G.; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Collard, Renata; Coughlin, Curtis R.; Spector, Elaine; Wempe, Michael F.; Van Hove, Johan L K.

In: Brain, Vol. 137, No. 2, 2014, p. 366-379.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Baker, PR, Friederich, MW, Swanson, MA, Shaikh, T, Bhattacharya, K, Scharer, GH, Aicher, J, Creadon-Swindell, G, Geiger, E, Maclean, KN, Lee, WT, Deshpande, C, Freckmann, ML, Shih, LY, Wasserstein, MP, Rasmussen, MB, Lund, AM, Procopis, P, Cameron, JM, Robinson, BH, Brown, GK, Brown, RM, Compton, AG, Dieckmann, CL, Collard, R, Coughlin, CR, Spector, E, Wempe, MF & Van Hove, JLK 2014, 'Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5', Brain, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 366-379. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt328
Baker PR, Friederich MW, Swanson MA, Shaikh T, Bhattacharya K, Scharer GH et al. Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5. Brain. 2014;137(2):366-379. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt328
Baker, Peter R. ; Friederich, Marisa W. ; Swanson, Michael A. ; Shaikh, Tamim ; Bhattacharya, Kaustuv ; Scharer, Gunter H. ; Aicher, Joseph ; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn ; Geiger, Elizabeth ; Maclean, Kenneth N. ; Lee, Wang Tso ; Deshpande, Charu ; Freckmann, Mary Louise ; Shih, Ling Yu ; Wasserstein, Melissa P. ; Rasmussen, Malene B. ; Lund, Allan M. ; Procopis, Peter ; Cameron, Jessie M. ; Robinson, Brian H. ; Brown, Garry K. ; Brown, Ruth M. ; Compton, Alison G. ; Dieckmann, Carol L. ; Collard, Renata ; Coughlin, Curtis R. ; Spector, Elaine ; Wempe, Michael F. ; Van Hove, Johan L K. / Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5. In: Brain. 2014 ; Vol. 137, No. 2. pp. 366-379.
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abstract = "Patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity, but without mutations in AMT, GLDC or GCSH, the genes encoding its constituent proteins, constitute a clinical group which we call 'variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia'. We hypothesize that in some patients the aetiology involves genetic mutations that result in a deficiency of the cofactor lipoate, and sequenced genes involved in lipoate synthesis and iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis. Of 11 individuals identified with variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia, we were able to determine the genetic aetiology in eight patients and delineate the clinical and biochemical phenotypes. Mutations were identified in the genes for lipoate synthase (LIAS), BolA type 3 (BOLA3), and a novel gene glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5). Patients with GLRX5-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia had normal development with childhood-onset spastic paraplegia, spinal lesion, and optic atrophy. Clinical features of BOLA3-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia include severe neurodegeneration after a period of normal development. Additional features include leukodystrophy, cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Patients with lipoate synthase-deficient variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia varied in severity from mild static encephalopathy to Leigh disease and cortical involvement. All patients had high serum and borderline elevated cerebrospinal fluid glycine and cerebrospinal fluid:plasma glycine ratio, and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity. They had low pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity but most did not have lactic acidosis. Patients were deficient in lipoylation of mitochondrial proteins. There were minimal and inconsistent changes in cellular iron handling, and respiratory chain activity was unaffected. Identified mutations were phylogenetically conserved, and transfection with native genes corrected the biochemical deficiency proving pathogenicity. Treatments of cells with lipoate and with mitochondrially-targeted lipoate were unsuccessful at correcting the deficiency. The recognition of variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia is important for physicians evaluating patients with abnormalities in glycine as this will affect the genetic causation and genetic counselling, and provide prognostic information on the expected phenotypic course.",
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T1 - Variant non ketotic hyperglycinemia is caused by mutations in LIAS, BOLA3 and the novel gene GLRX5

AU - Baker, Peter R.

AU - Friederich, Marisa W.

AU - Swanson, Michael A.

AU - Shaikh, Tamim

AU - Bhattacharya, Kaustuv

AU - Scharer, Gunter H.

AU - Aicher, Joseph

AU - Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn

AU - Geiger, Elizabeth

AU - Maclean, Kenneth N.

AU - Lee, Wang Tso

AU - Deshpande, Charu

AU - Freckmann, Mary Louise

AU - Shih, Ling Yu

AU - Wasserstein, Melissa P.

AU - Rasmussen, Malene B.

AU - Lund, Allan M.

AU - Procopis, Peter

AU - Cameron, Jessie M.

AU - Robinson, Brian H.

AU - Brown, Garry K.

AU - Brown, Ruth M.

AU - Compton, Alison G.

AU - Dieckmann, Carol L.

AU - Collard, Renata

AU - Coughlin, Curtis R.

AU - Spector, Elaine

AU - Wempe, Michael F.

AU - Van Hove, Johan L K

PY - 2014

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N2 - Patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity, but without mutations in AMT, GLDC or GCSH, the genes encoding its constituent proteins, constitute a clinical group which we call 'variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia'. We hypothesize that in some patients the aetiology involves genetic mutations that result in a deficiency of the cofactor lipoate, and sequenced genes involved in lipoate synthesis and iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis. Of 11 individuals identified with variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia, we were able to determine the genetic aetiology in eight patients and delineate the clinical and biochemical phenotypes. Mutations were identified in the genes for lipoate synthase (LIAS), BolA type 3 (BOLA3), and a novel gene glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5). Patients with GLRX5-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia had normal development with childhood-onset spastic paraplegia, spinal lesion, and optic atrophy. Clinical features of BOLA3-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia include severe neurodegeneration after a period of normal development. Additional features include leukodystrophy, cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Patients with lipoate synthase-deficient variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia varied in severity from mild static encephalopathy to Leigh disease and cortical involvement. All patients had high serum and borderline elevated cerebrospinal fluid glycine and cerebrospinal fluid:plasma glycine ratio, and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity. They had low pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity but most did not have lactic acidosis. Patients were deficient in lipoylation of mitochondrial proteins. There were minimal and inconsistent changes in cellular iron handling, and respiratory chain activity was unaffected. Identified mutations were phylogenetically conserved, and transfection with native genes corrected the biochemical deficiency proving pathogenicity. Treatments of cells with lipoate and with mitochondrially-targeted lipoate were unsuccessful at correcting the deficiency. The recognition of variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia is important for physicians evaluating patients with abnormalities in glycine as this will affect the genetic causation and genetic counselling, and provide prognostic information on the expected phenotypic course.

AB - Patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity, but without mutations in AMT, GLDC or GCSH, the genes encoding its constituent proteins, constitute a clinical group which we call 'variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia'. We hypothesize that in some patients the aetiology involves genetic mutations that result in a deficiency of the cofactor lipoate, and sequenced genes involved in lipoate synthesis and iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis. Of 11 individuals identified with variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia, we were able to determine the genetic aetiology in eight patients and delineate the clinical and biochemical phenotypes. Mutations were identified in the genes for lipoate synthase (LIAS), BolA type 3 (BOLA3), and a novel gene glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5). Patients with GLRX5-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia had normal development with childhood-onset spastic paraplegia, spinal lesion, and optic atrophy. Clinical features of BOLA3-associated variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia include severe neurodegeneration after a period of normal development. Additional features include leukodystrophy, cardiomyopathy and optic atrophy. Patients with lipoate synthase-deficient variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia varied in severity from mild static encephalopathy to Leigh disease and cortical involvement. All patients had high serum and borderline elevated cerebrospinal fluid glycine and cerebrospinal fluid:plasma glycine ratio, and deficient glycine cleavage enzyme activity. They had low pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity but most did not have lactic acidosis. Patients were deficient in lipoylation of mitochondrial proteins. There were minimal and inconsistent changes in cellular iron handling, and respiratory chain activity was unaffected. Identified mutations were phylogenetically conserved, and transfection with native genes corrected the biochemical deficiency proving pathogenicity. Treatments of cells with lipoate and with mitochondrially-targeted lipoate were unsuccessful at correcting the deficiency. The recognition of variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia is important for physicians evaluating patients with abnormalities in glycine as this will affect the genetic causation and genetic counselling, and provide prognostic information on the expected phenotypic course.

KW - iron-sulphur cluster

KW - leukodystrophy

KW - lipoic acid

KW - nonketotic hyperglycinemia

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