Hemodynamic assessment of pacemaker patients is necessary for gauging responses to changes in programming or other conditions affecting circulation. Impedance cardiography permits noninvasive determinations of cardiac output at short intervals but data regarding variability of this method in patients with pacemakers is unavailable. Thirty-eight patients with pacemakers (24 with DDD and 14 with WI devices) and 6 normal subjects were studied. Each patient was studied in the supine position and repeated impedance measurements were obtained. Fourteen patients were studied during sinus rhythm, 24 were studied during DDD pacing, and 32 patients were studied during WI pacing. Variability was assessed by methods that analyzed both serial measurements and variability between 2 consecutive and nonconsecutive measurements. The mean indexes and coefficients of variation of 2 and serial measurements in sinus rhythm and DDD were 4%; in WI it was 6%. The precision of impedance cardiography in all pacing modes, as demonstrated by analysis of variability, indicates that detected changes of stroke volume and cardiac output >7% on serial (2 and more) measurements, performed by the same operator and during the same session, represent true hemodynamic alterations with 95% confidence. The precision of impedance cardiography demonstrated may be comparable or superior to other frequently used techniques, and the data obtained are valuable both investigationally and clinically.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine