Right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is a primary imaging method in the assessment of cardiac function; however, visualization of the right-sided heart is often technically difficult in patients with heart failure. We aimed to create a simple and generally applicable scoring system based on "left-sided echocardiographic parameters" to provide complementary information for predicting RVF after LVAD surgery. We reviewed 111 consecutive patients undergoing LVAD surgery from 2007 through 2010. Echocardiograms within 5 days before surgery were analyzed. RVF was defined as an unexpected RV assist devices requirement, nitric oxide inhalation >48 hours, and/or inotropic support >14 days. Thirty-five patients (32%) developed RVF. LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) was smaller, LV ejection fraction was greater, and the left atrial diameter/LVEDD ratio was greater (p < 0.05 for all comparisons) in patients with RVF than in those without RVF. An RVF score (LV echocardiographic RVF score) was determined as a sum of points based on receiver operator characteristics analysis: LVEDD >78, 79 to 70, and <70 mm; LV ejection fraction ≤19%, 19% to 33%, and >33%; and left atrial diameter/LVEDD <0.63, 0.63 to 0.68, and >0.68; each variable was associated with 0 and 1 point and 2 points, respectively. LV echocardiographic RVF score <3 was associated with RVF with a sensitivity of 88.6% and score <5 with a specificity of 80.3%. In conclusion, patients with relatively small LV size, preserved LV contraction, and dilated left atrium were at higher risk for RVF after LVAD surgery. In conclusion, LV echocardiographic RVF score provides a novel tool to predict RVF after LVAD surgery, which does not involve invasive or technically complicated procedures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine