Urinary morbidity with a modified peripheral loading technique of transperineal 125I prostate implantation

Douglas Brown, Athanasios Colonias, Ralph Miller, Ronald Benoit, Jeffrey Cohen, Youssef Arshoun, Michael Galloway, Stephen Karlovits, Andrew Wu, Mark Johnson, Annette Quinn, Shalom Kalnicki

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Purpose: Analysis of urinary morbidity within the first 12 months following a modified peripheral loading technique for permanent transperineal transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided 125I prostate implantation and comparison of urinary morbidity with various clinical and implant parameters. Materials and Methods: Between October 1, 1996, and March 11, 1998, 87 patients with favorable, early stage prostate cancer were treated with permanent transperineal TRUS guided 125I prostate implantation. A peripheral loading technique was utilized for source placement with 75-80% source distribution in the periphery and 20-25% source distribution centrally. A mean total activity of 38 mCi of 125I was implanted (range, 19-66 mCi). The mean source activity was 0.43 mCi/source (range, 0.26-0.61 mCi/source) and the mean number of sources implanted was 88 (range, 56-134). The minimum prescribed dose to the prostate was 145 Gy. The median D90, V100, and V150 were 152 Gy (range, 104-211 Gy), 92% (range, 71-99%), and 61% (range, 11-89%), respectively. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 12-29 months). Urinary morbidity was scored at 3 weeks and then at 3-month intervals for the first 2 years using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system (scale 0-5). Results: Most patients developed at least minor urinary symptoms with frequency or nocturia being the most common. Overall, 79% (69/87) of patients experienced urinary morbidity with 21% (18/87) reporting no symptoms. The incidence of overall Grade 1 urinary morbidity was 37% (32/87); Grade 2 morbidity was 37% (32/87); and Grade 3 morbidity was 6% (5/87). There was no Grade 4 or 5 morbidity. The incidence of Grade 0 frequency/nocturia was 36% (31/87); Grade 1 was 33% (29/87); Grade 2 was 30% (26/87); and Grade 3 was 1% (1/87). Grade 0 dysuria was seen in 56% (49/87) of patients; 32% (28/87) had Grade 1; 10% (9/87) Grade 2; and 1% (1/87) Grade 3 dysuria. Most urinary symptoms started a few weeks after implantation and began to subside by 6 months. At 12 months, 22% (19/87) of patients had persistent urinary symptoms (78% Grade 0, 15% Grade 1, 3% Grade 2, and 3% Grade 3). The mean urethral point dose was 174 Gy (range, 99-315 Gy). The mean number of sources implanted correlated significantly with the likelihood of developing acute urinary morbidity (p = 0.03). The total activity implanted also correlated with the morbidity outcome dysuria (p = 0.01) with a threshold seen at 37 mCi. Urethral point dose, source activity, intraoperative TRUS prostate volume, D90, V100, V150, patient age, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, and T stage did not correlate with morbidity. Conclusions: Permanent transperineal TRUS guided 125I prostate implantation using a modified peripheral loading technique is associated with mild urinary morbidity that resolves in 78% of patients by 12 months. Grade 3 urinary morbidity was encountered in only 6% (5/87) of patients. Urinary morbidity may be related to the total number of sources implanted and/or the total activity implanted. Overall urinary morbidity was not correlated with urethral point dose, source activity, intraoperative TRUS prostate volume, D90, V100, V150, patient age, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, and T stage. The low incidence of urinary morbidity may be a consequence of our modified peripheral loading technique and/or the selection of patients with good-to-excellent preimplant urological parameters. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess biochemical control rates and long-term morbidity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-360
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2000
Externally publishedYes



  • Brachytherapy
  • Morbidity
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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