Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital

A 5-year retrospective review

Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Julie Varughese, Paul Sue, Phyllis Andrews, Mary Brimmage, Joanna Dobroszycki, Christina M. Coyle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Typhoid is a leading cause of fever in returning travelers. The prevalence is highest in migrants visiting friends and relatives (VFR travelers) in the Indian subcontinent, where reports of resistance have been of concern. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients with typhoid, seen over a 5-year period, in a tertiary center that serves a large immigrant population. Methods Patients with blood cultures positive for Salmonella Typhi were identified between 2006 and 2010. Charts were reviewed for demographic data, travel history, symptoms and signs, basic laboratory results, susceptibility profiles, treatment, and clinical course. Resistance to nalidixic acid was used as a marker of decreased susceptibility to quinolones. Results Seventeen patients were identified with S Typhi. The median age was 12 years (range: 2-47 y) and 94% (16 of 17) were hospitalized with a median stay of 7 days; two were admitted to the intensive care unit. Fourteen patients (82%) had a history of recent travel. Twelve were VFR travelers in Bangladesh and Pakistan and two had recently immigrated. In our study, typhoid patients had low eosinophil counts and elevated transaminases. Seventy-six percent (12 of 17) of all isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, 23.5% (4 of 17) were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, and one was resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusions Younger VFR travelers appear to be at greater risk of acquiring infection and developing complications. Absolute eosinopenia and increased liver function test values could be useful early diagnostic clues in a returning traveler with fever, once malaria has been excluded. There was a high rate of decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, confirming that the use of third-generation cephalosporins or macrolides in patients from the Indian subcontinent is most appropriate. Prevention in VFR travelers to South Asia is critical and efforts should be targeted at better education and pre-travel immunization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-21
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Travel Medicine
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Typhoid Fever
Urban Hospitals
Nalidixic Acid
Cephalosporins
Fever
Salmonella typhi
Bangladesh
Liver Function Tests
Pakistan
Quinolones
Fluoroquinolones
Macrolides
Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Trimethoprim
Ampicillin
Ciprofloxacin
Transaminases
Eosinophils
Malaria
Signs and Symptoms
Intensive Care Units

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Farmakiotis, D., Varughese, J., Sue, P., Andrews, P., Brimmage, M., Dobroszycki, J., & Coyle, C. M. (2013). Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital: A 5-year retrospective review. Journal of Travel Medicine, 20(1), 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2012.00665.x

Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital : A 5-year retrospective review. / Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Varughese, Julie; Sue, Paul; Andrews, Phyllis; Brimmage, Mary; Dobroszycki, Joanna; Coyle, Christina M.

In: Journal of Travel Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 1, 01.2013, p. 17-21.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farmakiotis, D, Varughese, J, Sue, P, Andrews, P, Brimmage, M, Dobroszycki, J & Coyle, CM 2013, 'Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital: A 5-year retrospective review', Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2012.00665.x
Farmakiotis D, Varughese J, Sue P, Andrews P, Brimmage M, Dobroszycki J et al. Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital: A 5-year retrospective review. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2013 Jan;20(1):17-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2012.00665.x
Farmakiotis, Dimitrios ; Varughese, Julie ; Sue, Paul ; Andrews, Phyllis ; Brimmage, Mary ; Dobroszycki, Joanna ; Coyle, Christina M. / Typhoid fever in an inner city hospital : A 5-year retrospective review. In: Journal of Travel Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 17-21.
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