Two-dimensional recall: Immediate identification of clusters in episodic and semantic memory

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Abstract

To show the organization of recall, items that are remembered together can be written on the same line of a two-dimensional (2D) grid. Such 2D recall does not induce the clustering it reveals. Two-dimensional recall on all trials is essentially the same as standard sequential free recall followed by unexpected 2D recall. The clustering in standard free recall is shown by identifying clusters that emerge in 2D recall. Clustering increases until most of recall is clustered. Two-dimensional recall shows that the number of clustered items increases more rapidly than the number of clusters, and that most of the increasing recall during learning is due to the increasing number of extra items recalled as part of a cluster.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-215
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1977

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Episodic Memory
Short-Term Memory
Semantics
Cluster Analysis
semantics
Data storage equipment
organization
Learning
learning
Semantic Memory
Free Recall

Cite this

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abstract = "To show the organization of recall, items that are remembered together can be written on the same line of a two-dimensional (2D) grid. Such 2D recall does not induce the clustering it reveals. Two-dimensional recall on all trials is essentially the same as standard sequential free recall followed by unexpected 2D recall. The clustering in standard free recall is shown by identifying clusters that emerge in 2D recall. Clustering increases until most of recall is clustered. Two-dimensional recall shows that the number of clustered items increases more rapidly than the number of clusters, and that most of the increasing recall during learning is due to the increasing number of extra items recalled as part of a cluster.",
author = "Herman Buschke",
year = "1977",
doi = "10.1016/S0022-5371(77)80047-9",
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AB - To show the organization of recall, items that are remembered together can be written on the same line of a two-dimensional (2D) grid. Such 2D recall does not induce the clustering it reveals. Two-dimensional recall on all trials is essentially the same as standard sequential free recall followed by unexpected 2D recall. The clustering in standard free recall is shown by identifying clusters that emerge in 2D recall. Clustering increases until most of recall is clustered. Two-dimensional recall shows that the number of clustered items increases more rapidly than the number of clusters, and that most of the increasing recall during learning is due to the increasing number of extra items recalled as part of a cluster.

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