TRIM5α Restriction of HIV-1-N74D Viruses in Lymphocytes Is Caused by a Loss of Cyclophilin A Protection

Anastasia Selyutina, Lacy M. Simons, Karen A. Kirby, Angel Bulnes-Ramos, Pan Hu, Stefan G. Sarafianos, Judd F. Hultquist, Felipe Diaz-Griffero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The core of HIV-1 viruses bearing the capsid change N74D (HIV-1-N74D) do not bind the human protein CPSF6. In primary human CD4+ T cells, HIV-1-N74D viruses exhibit an infectivity defect when compared to wild-type. We first investigated whether loss of CPSF6 binding accounts for the loss of infectivity. Depletion of CPSF6 in human CD4+ T cells did not affect the early stages of wild-type HIV-1 replication, suggesting that defective infectivity in the case of HIV-1-N74D viruses is not due to the loss of CPSF6 binding. Based on our previous result that cyclophilin A (Cyp A) protected HIV-1 from human tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5αhu ) restriction in CD4+ T cells, we found that depletion of TRIM5αhu in CD4+ T cells rescued the infectivity of HIV-1-N74D, suggesting that HIV-1-N74D cores interacted with TRIM5αhu . Accordingly, TRIM5αhu binding to HIV-1-N74D cores was increased compared with that of wild-type cores, and consistently, HIV-1-N74D cores lost their ability to bind Cyp A. In agreement with the notion that N74D capsids are defective in their ability to bind Cyp A, we found that HIV-1-N74D viruses were 20-fold less sensitive to TRIMCyp restriction when compared to wild-type viruses in OMK cells. Structural analysis revealed that N74D hexameric capsid protein in complex with PF74 is different from wild-type hexameric capsid protein in complex with PF74, which explains the defect of N74D capsids to interact with Cyp A. In conclusion, we showed that the decreased infectivity of HIV-1-N74D in CD4+ T cells is due to a loss of Cyp A protection from TRIM5αhu restriction activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number363
JournalViruses
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • CPSF6
  • Capsid
  • Core
  • HIV-1
  • N74D
  • Restriction
  • TRIM5α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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