The core of HIV-1 viruses bearing the capsid change N74D (HIV-1-N74D) do not bind the human protein CPSF6. In primary human CD4+ T cells, HIV-1-N74D viruses exhibit an infectivity defect when compared to wild-type. We first investigated whether loss of CPSF6 binding accounts for the loss of infectivity. Depletion of CPSF6 in human CD4+ T cells did not affect the early stages of wild-type HIV-1 replication, suggesting that defective infectivity in the case of HIV-1-N74D viruses is not due to the loss of CPSF6 binding. Based on our previous result that cyclophilin A (Cyp A) protected HIV-1 from human tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5αhu ) restriction in CD4+ T cells, we found that depletion of TRIM5αhu in CD4+ T cells rescued the infectivity of HIV-1-N74D, suggesting that HIV-1-N74D cores interacted with TRIM5αhu . Accordingly, TRIM5αhu binding to HIV-1-N74D cores was increased compared with that of wild-type cores, and consistently, HIV-1-N74D cores lost their ability to bind Cyp A. In agreement with the notion that N74D capsids are defective in their ability to bind Cyp A, we found that HIV-1-N74D viruses were 20-fold less sensitive to TRIMCyp restriction when compared to wild-type viruses in OMK cells. Structural analysis revealed that N74D hexameric capsid protein in complex with PF74 is different from wild-type hexameric capsid protein in complex with PF74, which explains the defect of N74D capsids to interact with Cyp A. In conclusion, we showed that the decreased infectivity of HIV-1-N74D in CD4+ T cells is due to a loss of Cyp A protection from TRIM5αhu restriction activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases