Trends in cannabis use disorder by cigarette smoking status in the United States, 2002–2016

Andrea H. Weinberger, Lauren R. Pacek, Melanie M. Wall, Michael J. Zvolensky, Jan Copeland, Sandro Galea, Shadi Nahvi, Scott J. Moeller, Deborah S. Hasin, Renee D. Goodwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Background: Cannabis use is on the rise in the United States (US) and is disproportionately common among cigarette smokers. Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs among a small subset of cannabis users and may impact cigarette use. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of CUD among daily, non-daily, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2016. Methods: Data were drawn from cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of individuals ages 12 and older in the US that were collected annually. The prevalence of past 12-month CUD was estimated each year from 2002 to 2016 among daily, non-daily, former, and never cigarette smokers (total analytic N = 837,326). Results: Overall, the prevalence of CUD decreased from 2002 to 2016. Yet, trends differed by cigarette smoking status. Adjusting for demographics, the prevalence of CUD increased significantly among non-daily smokers (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.03) from 2002 to 2016 and did not change among daily, former, or never smokers. CUD was significantly more common among non-daily (4.32%) and daily cigarette smokers (2.92%) compared with former (0.99%) and never smokers (1.11%) in 2016. Approximately one in five (18.11%–22.87%) youth ages 12–17 who smoke cigarettes met criteria for CUD in 2016, compared with approximately 2% of non-smoking youth. Conclusions: Despite downward trends in CUD observed at the general population level, the prevalence of CUD significantly increased among non-daily cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2016. In the US, CUD remains significantly higher among cigarette smokers relative to non-cigarette smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-51
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018


  • Cannabis
  • Cannabis use disorder
  • Cigarettes
  • Epidemiology
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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